Glucose Lowering Effect of Brown Pigmented Rice (oryza sativa l) in Diet-Induced Hyperglycemic Sprague Dawley Rats

Heni Purwaningsih, Wilma A. Hurtada, Aimee Sheree A. Barrion, Marites G. Yee, Josefina T. Dizon, Siti Nuryanti


The study investigated the dietary fiber and glycemic index of the three varieties of brown pigmented rice, namely, Inpari 24, Mawar, and Segreng, and the hypoglycemic effect of the rice variety with the highest dietary fiber and low glycemic index in hyperglycemic Sprague Dawley rats. Study phases included: 1) chemical analysis such as dietary fiber and amylose content, and proximate analysis of brown pigmented rice, 2) intervention phase 1: determination of effective dose of brown pigmented rice; and 3) intervention phase 2: in vivo evaluation of hypoglycemic effects of brown pigmented rice. Segreng variety contained the highest dietary fiber and lowest glycemic index. At the end of the intervention period, the effective dose to lower the blood glucose level was 75% cooked brown pigmented rice and 25 % commercial rodent feed combination with a reduction of 54.57 %. And its reduction was comparable to the blood glucose level of rats given glibenclamide treatment (58.24 %). A significant positive correlation for blood glucose with calorie, carbohydrate, and fat was also observed. Therefore, the consumption of cooked brown pigmented rice can lower blood glucose levels in hyperglycemic Sprague Dawley rats. Furthermore, the glucose-lowering could be due to the dietary fiber and amylose content of brown pigmented rice. Further study is recommended using human subjects, and it may also be replicated using other grains like corn, adlai, sorghum, and root crops.


Brown pigmented rice; low glycemic index; high dietary fiber; blood glucose level.

Full Text:



P. D. med D. Müller-Wieland et al., “Definition, Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus,” Diabetologe, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 128–134, 2019, doi: 10.1007/s11428-019-0460-1.

T. D. Mellitus, V. Argiana, P. T. Kanellos, I. Eleftheriadou, and G. Tsitsinakis, “nutrients Low-Glycemic-Index / Load Desserts Decrease Glycemic and Insulinemic Response in Patients with,” pp. 1–9, 2020.

Y. Granfeldt, L. Helena, A. Drews, R. Newman, and I. Björck, Glucose of food and insulin responses to barley structure and amylose-. amylopectin products:” Am. J. Clin. Nutr., vol. 59, no. April, pp. 1075–1082, 1994.

A. P. P. Tuaño, E. C. G. Barcellano, and M. S. Rodriguez, “Resistant Starch Levels and In Vitro Starch Digestibility of Selected Cooked Philippine Brown and Milled Rices Varying in Apparent Amylose Content and Glycemic Index,” Food Chem. Mol. Sci., p. 100010, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.fochms.2021.100010.

N. Pellegrini, E. Vittadini, and V. Fogliano, “Designing food structure to slow down digestion in starch-rich products,” Curr. Opin. Food Sci., vol. 32, pp. 50–57, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.cofs.2020.01.010.

W. A. Yulianto, “Influence of pandan leaf extract and fortificants addition and cooling duration to cooking quality, preference level, and glycemic index of brown parboiled rice fortified with chromium and magnesium,” IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci., vol. 443, no. 1, 2020, doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/443/1/012099.

A. Kumar et al., “Resistant starch could be decisive in determining the glycemic index of rice cultivars,” J. Cereal Sci., vol. 79, pp. 348–353, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.jcs.2017.11.013.

A. C. Haldipur and N. Srividya, “In vitro glycemic response of indigenous pigmented rice cultivars from South India and influence of different carbohydrate components,” Curr. Res. Nutr. Food Sci., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 815–828, 2020, doi: 10.12944/CRNFSJ.8.3.13.

J. B. Buse et al., “2019 update to: Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes, 2018. A consensus report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD),” Diabetes Care, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 487–493, 2020, doi: 10.2337/dci19-0066.

Z. K. Zhou, F. Wang, X. C. Ren, Y. Wang, and C. Blanchard, “Resistant starch manipulated hyperglycemia/hyperlipidemia and related genes expression in diabetic rats,” Int. J. Biol. Macromol., vol. 75, pp. 316–321, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2015.01.052.

P. Cunniff and A. of O. A. Chemists., Official methods of analysis of AOAC international. Washington, DC: Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 1995.

Y. Mukhtar, A. M. Galalain, and U. M. Yunusa, “A Modern Overview on Diabetes Mellitus: A Chronic Endocrine Disorder,” Eur. J. Biol., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1–14, 2019.

A. E. El-Hadary and M. F. Ramadan, “Phenolic profiles, antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, and antioxidant properties of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel extract,” J. Food Biochem., vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 1–9, 2019, doi: 10.1111/jfbc.12803.

D. P. Belobrajdic et al., “High-amylose wheat lowers the postprandial glycemic response to bread in healthy adults: A randomized controlled crossover trial,” J. Nutr., vol. 149, no. 8, pp. 1335–1345, 2019, doi: 10.1093/jn/nxz067.

N. Maria, “Nutritional, functional properties , glycemic index and glycemic load of,” vol. 3, no. October, pp. 537–545, 2019.

N. M. H. Osman, B. N. Mohd-Yusof, and A. Ismail, “Estimating Glycemic Index of Rice-Based Mixed Meals by Using Predicted and Adjusted Formulae,” Rice Sci., vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 274–282, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.rsci.2017.06.001.

D. D. Handoko and S. D. Indrasari, “The Glycemic Index Value of Hipa 7 and the Determination Method,” Kaunia Integr. Interconnect. Islam Sci., vol. 16, no. 1, p. 19, 2020, doi: 10.14421/kaunia.2148.

B. Bhavadharini et al., “White rice intake and incident diabetes: A study of 132,373 participants in 21 countries,” Diabetes Care, vol. 43, no. 11, pp. 2643–2650, 2020, doi: 10.2337/dc19-2335.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development