Non-destructive Measurement of Lycopene Content in High Soluble Solids Stored Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum Mill. cv Rinka 409)

Fanesya Dyah Anggraeni, Nafis Khuriyati, Moh. Affan Fajar Falah, Hiroshige Nishina, Kotaro Takayama, Noriko Takahashi


High-quality fruits can be produced by controlling the environmental factors, i.e. temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide, and light intensity. The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) variety ‘Rinka 409’, was grown hydroponically with a high-wire system in high technology greenhouse, Ehime University, Japan. The water stress treatment using visual monitoring system was used to produce the high soluble solids tomato fruits. Moreover, a high lycopene content of tomato can be produced by controlling the storage condition. Non-destructive measurement has been known to provide a fast and accurate quality measurement of fruits and vegetables. The objectives of this study were to develop a precise position for the non-destructive measurement of the lycopene content in high soluble solids stored tomato using Vis/NIR spectroscopy and evaluate its performance. In this study, the high soluble solids of tomato fruits were grown under water stress treatment and stored after harvesting at 25°C in a cool incubator for 7 days. The tomato spectra were measured using Vis/NIR spectroscopy with the wavelength 500-1010 nm. The estimation of the lycopene content was based on the statistical model using multivariate analysis. From this study, it is concluded that the measurement of lycopene content in high soluble solids of tomato fruits after storage by using the top part of the tomato, was better than if it is  compared to the side part. It was best determined using PLS analysis with Visible/Near-infrared Spectroscopy non-destructively, with the R 0.98 and RMSE 0.80.


high soluble solids tomato; lycopene; non-destructive measurement; stored tomato; visible/near-infrared spectroscopy.

Full Text:



N. Choab, A. Allouhi, A.E. Maakoul, T. Kousksou, S. Saadeddine, and A. Jamil, “Review on greenhouse microclimate and application: design parameters, thermal modeling and simulation, climate controlling technologies,” Solar Energy, vol. 191, pp 109-137. 2019.

J. Wang, M. Chen, J. Zhou, and P. Li, “Data communication mechanism for greenhouse environment monitoring and control: An agent-based IoT system,” Information Processing in Agriculture. 2019.

I. Becker-Reshef, C. Justice, B. Barker, M. Humber, F. Rembold, R. Bonifacio, M. Zappacosta, M. Budde, T. Magadzire, C. Shitote, J. Pound, A. Constantino, C. Nakalembe, K. Mwangi, S. Sobue, T. Newby, A. Whitcraft, I. Jarvis, and J. Verdin, “Strengthening agricultural decisions in countries at risk of food insecurity: the GEOGLAM crop monitor for early warning,” Remote Sensing of Environment, vol. 237: 111553. 2020.

M.H. Liang, Y.F. He, L.J. Chen, and S.F. Du, “Greenhouse environment dynamic monitoring system based,” IFAC Papers Online 51-17: 736–740. 2018.

K. Takayama, and H. Nishina, “Early detection of water stress in tomato plants based on projected plant area,” Journal of Environmental Control Biology, A Review, vol. 45, pp.241-249. 2007.

L.A. Diouf, L. Derivot, F. Bitton, L. Pascual, and M. Causse, “Water deficit and salinity stress reveal many specific QTL for plant growth and fruit quality traits in tomato,” Front. Plant Sci., 9:279. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2018.00279. 2018.

H. Yang, T. Du, X. Mao, R. Ding, and M.K. Shukla, “A comprehensive method of evaluating the impact of drought and salt stress on tomato growth and fruit quality based on EPIC growth model,” Agricultural Water Management, vol.213, pp. 16–127. 2019.

Badan Pusat Statistik. (2017). Konsumsi buah dan sayur susenas Maret 2016 dalam rangka hari gizi nasional 25 Januari 2017. [Online]. Available:

E. Coyago-Cruz, M. Corell, A. Moriana, D. Hernanz, A.M. Benitez-Gonzalez, C.M. Stinco, A.J. Melendez-Martinez, “Antioxidants (carotenoids and phenolics) profile of cherry tomatoes as influenced by deficit irrigation, ripening and cluster,” Food Chemistry, vol. 240, pp 870–884. 2018.

S. Jeyaprakash, J.E. Heffernan, R.H. Driscoll, and D.C. Frank, “Impact of drying technologies on tomato flavor composition and sensory quality,” LWT, vol 120, 108888. 2020.

S.W. Souci, W. Fachmann, and H. Kraut. Food Composition and Nutrition Tables, 7th Revised and Completed Edition. USA: Taylor and Francis Group, CRC Press, 2008.

J. Zhang, Y. Zhang, S. Song, W. Su, Y. Hao, and H. Liu, “Supplementary red light results in the earlier ripening of tomato fruit depending on ethylene production,” Environmental and Experimental Botany, vol.175: 104044. 2020.

M. Eggersdorfer, and A. Wyss, “Carotenoids in human nutrition and health. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 652, pp. 18–26. 2018.

R. Wang, M. Lammers, Y. Tikunov, A.G. Bovy, G.C. Angenent, and R.A. de Maagd, “The rin, nor and Cnr spontaneous mutations inhibit tomato fruit ripening in additive and epistatic manners,” Plant Science, vol. 294: 110436. 2020.

R. Ilahy, I. Tlili, M.W. Siddiqui, C. Hdider, and M.S. Lenucci, “Inside and beyond color: comparative overview of functional quality of tomato and watermelon fruits. Frontiers in Plant Science, vol. 10: Article 769. 2019.

V.R. Preedy, and R.R Watson. Lycopene: Nutritional, Medicinal and Therapeutic Properties. USA: Science Publishers, 2008.

S. Li, Z. Luo, B. Lu, S. Xia, C. Li, X. Guan, J. Zhang, K. Huang, and F. Xian, “Protective effects of lycopene on kainin acid-induced seizures. Journal of Epilepsy Research, vol. 151, pp. 1-6. 2019.

F.D. Anggraeni, N. Takahashi, M. Kono, K. Takayama, H. Nishina, M.A.F. Falah, R. Kudo, Y. Nakanishi, K. Yamamoto, and H. Matuura, “Effect of storage temperatures on high soluble solids tomato fruit quality after long-term storage,” Joint Conference on Environmental Engineering in Agriculture, Japan. 2018.

S. Abasi, S. Minaei, B. Jamshidi, and D. Fathi, “Dedicated non-destructive devices for food quality measurement: A review,” Trends in Food Science & Technology, vol.78, pp. 197–205. 2018.

N. Khuriyati, T. Matsuoka, and S. Kawano, “Precise near infrared spectral acquisition of intact tomatoes in interactance mode,” Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy, vol. 12, pp. 391-396. 2004.

N. Takahashi, K. Takayama, H. Nishina, “Non-destructive measurement for lycopene content in tomato fruit using visible/near-infrared spectroscopy,” in Proc. of the International Conference on Agro-industry 2017 in Japan.

S. Hao, H. Cao, H. Wang, and X. Pan, “The physiological responses of tomato to water stress and re-water in different growth periods,” Scientia Horticulturae, 249: 142-154. 2019.

S.O. Ihouma, and C.A. Madramooto, “Sensitivity of spectral vegetation indices for monitoring water stress in tomato plants,” Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 163:104860. 2019.

G. Klunkin, and G. Savage, “Effect on quality characteristics of tomatoes grown under well-watered and drought stress conditions,” Foods Journal (MDPI) 6, 56. 2017.

H. Ito, and H. Horie, “Proper solvent selection for lycopene extracton in tomatoes and application to a rapid determination. Bulletin of The National Institute of Vegetable and Tea Science, vol. 8, pp. 165-173. 2009.

M. Nagata, Y. Noguchi, H. Ito, S. Imanishi, and K. Sugiyama,” A simple spectrophotometric method for the estimation of α-carotene, β-carotene and lycopene concentrations in carrot acetone extracts. (in Japanese text with english summary) Nippon Shokuhin Kagaku Kogaku Kaishi, vol. 54, pp. 351-355. 2007.

M. Nagata, and I. Yamashita, “Simple method for simultaneous determination of chlorophyll and carotenoids in tomato fruit. (in Japanese text with English summary) Nippon Shokuhin Kogyo Gakkaishi, vol. 39, pp. 925-928. 1992.

K. Kawamura, Y. Tsujimoto, M. Rabenarivo, H. Asai, A. Andriamanjara, and T. Rakotoson, “Vis-NIR spectroscopy and PLS regression with waveband selection for estimating the total C and N of paddy soils in Madagascar. Remote Sensing, vol. 9. 2017.

V.R. Preedy, and R.R. Watson. Tomatoes and Tomato Products: Nutritional, Medicinal and Therapeutic Properties. USA: Science Publishers, 2008.

T. Sun, H. Yuan, H. Cao, M. Yazdani, Y. Tadmor, and L. Li, “Carotenoid metabolism in plants: the role of plastids,” Molecular Plant, vol.11, issue 1, pp 58-74. 2018.

P.S. Khapte, P. Kumar, U. Burman, and P. Kumar, “Deficit irrigation in tomato: agronomical and physio-biochemical implications, review. Scientia Horticulturae, vol. 248, pp. 256-264. 2019.

R. Marti, M. Valcarcel, M. Leiva-Brondo, I. Lahoz, C. Campillo, S. Rosello, and Cebolla-Cornejo, “Influence of controlled deficit irrigation on tomato functional value,” Food Chemistry. 252: 250-257. 2018.

M.K. Selahle, D. Sivakumar, and P. Soundy, “Effect of photo-selective nettings on post-harvest quality and bioactive compounds in selected tomato cultivars. J. Sci. Food Agric., vol. 94, pp. 2187–2195. 2014.

J. Javanmardi, and C. Kubota, “Variation of lycopene, antioxidant activity, total soluble solids and weight loss of tomato during postharvest storage. Postharvest Biol. Technol, vol. 41, pp. 151–155. 2006.

H. Kuscu, A. Turhan, and A.O. Demir, “The response of processing tomato to deficit irrigation at various phenological stages in a sub-humid environment. Agricultural Water Management, vol. 133, pp. 92– 103. 2014.

Y. Huang, R. Lu, and K. Chen, “Assessment of tomato soluble solids content and pH by spatially-resolved and conventional Vis/NIR spectroscopy,” Journal of Food Engineering, vol.236, pp.19-28. 2018.

X. Liang, C. Ma, X. Yan, X. Liu, and F. Liu, “Advances in research on bioactivity, metabolism, stability and delivery systems of lycopene,” Trends in Food Science & Technology, vol. 93, pp.185-196. 2019.

D.P.S. Oberoi, and D.S. Sogi, “Prediction of lycopene degradation during dehydration of watermelon pomace (cv Sugar Baby),” Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, vol.16, issue 1, pp.97-103. 2017.

R. Sheng, W. Cheng, H. Li, S. Ali, A.A. Agyekum, and Q. Chen, “Model development for soluble solids and lycopene contents of cherry tomato at different temperatures using near-infrared spectroscopy,” Postharvest Biology and Technology, vol. 156. 2019.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development