Development and Validation of Enterprise Architecture (EA) Readiness Assessment Model

Surya Sumarni Hussein, Mohd Naz’ri Mahrin, Nurazean Maarop, Nur Azaliah Abu Bakar


Enterprise architecture (EA) proves to be a holistic strategy in aligning business and information technology. An increasing number of organizations, especially in the public sector, have adopted EA in order to take advantage of the opportunities that it offers. Through EA, the efficiency of the organization is improved, with the optimization of resources and the elimination of duplication and redundancy. However, the successful establishment of EA relies on the organization’s readiness and ability to adopt EA practices because without proper readiness, the practices will probably fail. EA readiness refers to the assessment of how ready an organization is to adopt and to establish EA practices. EA readiness helps the organization to measure their stage of readiness, to identify any gaps, and then to redesign its strategy in order to adopt EA practices. EA is a merger between business and IT. Thus, the important elements of EA readiness should comprise of people, process, technology, and catalyst enabler. There is a lack of readiness for an assessment model that shapes these four elements towards EA; hence, a clear gap has been identified. Therefore, the objective of this study is to validate the EA Readiness Assessment Model (EARAM) by performing the Delphi technique. The study adopts a three-round Delphi Technique to verify the identified elements and factors and this is followed by developing and validating the proposed model. Results from the Delphi analysis have validated four (4) major elements of EARAM, namely people, process, technology, and catalyst enabler. The number of factors that contributes towards the readiness of the EA establishment is fourteen (14).   It is anticipated that this model (EARAM) can help the Malaysian Public Sector (MPS) organization to identify and understand the elements and factors that must be considered when assessing the readiness to practice EA.


Enterprise Architecture; readiness; assessment; public sector; Delphi technique.

Full Text:



D. Witarsyah, T. Sjafrizal, M. F. MD Fudzee, and M. A. Salamat, “The Critical Factors Affecting e-Government Adoption in Indonesia: A Conceptual Framework,” Int. J. Adv. Sci. Eng. Inf. Technol., vol. 7, no. 1, p. 160, 2017.

D. Simon, K. Fischbach, and D. Schoder, “Enterprise architecture management and its role in corporate strategic management,” Inf. Syst. E-bus. Manag., vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 5–42, 2014.

N. Banaeianjahromi and K. Smolander, “Understanding Obstacles in Enterprise Architecture Development,” in European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), 2011, vol. 7, no. 3.

D. D. Dang and S. Pekkola, “Root Causes of Enterprise Architecture Problems,” Pacific Asia Conf. Inf. Syst., 2016.

F. Rahimi, J. Gøtze, and C. Møller, “Enterprise Architecture Management : Toward a Taxonomy of Applications,” vol. 40, 2017.

P. Desfray and G. Raymond, “Togaf®,” Model. Enterp. Archit. with TOGAF, pp. 1–24, 2014.

N. M. Aziz and H. Salleh, “Managing Organisation / Business Readiness towards IT / IS Implementation : A Model Comparison,” Aust. J. Basic Appl. Sci., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 215–221, 2011.

B. Jahani, S. R. S. Javadein, and H. A. Jafari, “Measurement of enterprise architecture readiness within organizations,” Bus. Strateg. Ser., vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 177–191, 2010.

D. D. Dang and S. Pekkola, “Institutionalising Enterprise Architecture in,” in The 2016 European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS). İstanbul, Turkey., 2016.

D. A. Purnawan and K. Surendro, “Building enterprise architecture for hospital information system,” 2016 4th Int. Conf. Inf. Commun. Technol. ICoICT 2016, vol. 4, no. c, pp. 1–6, 2016.

M. Yusoff, “Steering commitee meeting for development of ea in malaysian public sector (1GovEA) phase 1 NO. 2/2017,” 2017.

V. Seppänen, K. Penttinen, and M. Pulkkinen, “Key Issues in Enterprise Architecture Adoption in the Public Sector,” vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 46–58, 2018.

H. Al-Kharusi, S. Miskon, and M. Bahari, “Factors Influencing the Engagement Between Enterprise Architects and Stakeholders in Enterprise Architecture Development,” p. paper 262, 2016.

M. Ylinen and S. Pekkola, “Enterprise Architecture as a Scapegoat for Difficulties in Public Sector Organizational Transformation,” pp. 1–13, 2018.

N. Banaeianjahromi, “Where Enterprise Architecture Development Fails,” 2018 12th Int. Conf. Res. Challenges Inf. Sci., pp. 1–9, 2018.

T. Hope, E. Chew, and R. Sharma, “The failure of success factors: Lessons from success and failure cases of enterprise architecture implementation,” SIGMIS-CPR 2017 - Proc. 2017 ACM SIGMIS Conf. Comput. People Res., pp. 21–27, 2017.

T. Hope, “The Critical Success Factors of Enterprise Architecture,” University of Technology, Sydney, 2015.

D. Dang, “Enterprise Architecture and Organizational Reform : A Project Debrief,” 2017.

MAMPU, “Kajian Pembangunan Enterprise Architecture Sektor Awam : Current Assessment Report,” no. March, 2014.

MAMPU, “Readiness of government agencies for Enterprise Architecture,” 2016.

N. A. A. Bakar, N. Kama, and S. Harihodin, “Enterprise architecture development and implementation in public sector: The Malaysian perspective,” J. Theor. Appl. Inf. Technol., vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 176-188i, 2016.

A. Ojo, T. Janowski, and E. Estevez, “Improving Government Enterprise Architecture practice - Maturity factor analysis,” Proc. Annu. Hawaii Int. Conf. Syst. Sci., pp. 4260–4269, 2011.

A. Sobczak, “Methods of the assessment of enterprise architecture practice maturity in an organization,” Lect. Notes Bus. Inf. Process., vol. 158 LNBIP, pp. 104–111, 2013.

B. Van Der Raadt, M. Bonnet, S. Schouten, and H. Van Vliet, “The relation between EA effectiveness and stakeholder satisfaction,” J. Syst. Softw., vol. 83, no. 10, pp. 1954–1969, 2010.

S. S. Hussein et al., “Towards designing an EA readiness instrument: A systematic review,” in Colloquium in Information Science and Technology, CIST, 2017.

M. Alshawi and H. Salleh, “IT/IS Readiness Maturity Model,” Cases Perform. Meas. Product. Improv., pp. 23–37, 2011.

U. G. Gupta and R. E. Clarke, “Theory and applications of the Delphi technique: A bibliography (1975–1994),” Technol. Forecast. Soc. Change, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 185–211, 1996.

N. Dalkey and O. Helmer, “An experimental application of the Delphi method to the use of experts,” Manage. Sci., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 458–467, 1963.

J. Baker, K. Lovell, and N. Harris, “How expert are the experts? An exploration of the concept of ‘expert’ within Delphi panel techniques.,” Nurse Res., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 59–70, 2006.

J. Kosecoff et al., “General medical care and the education of internists in university hospitals: an evaluation of the teaching hospital general medicine group practice program,” Ann. Intern. Med., vol. 102, no. 2, pp. 250–257, 1985.

M. Adler and E. Ziglio, Gazing into the oracle: The Delphi method and its application to social policy and public health. Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 1996.

M. K. Adams, “Defining creative scholarship and identifying criteria for evaluating creative scholarship using a modified delphi technique.,” 2004.

Y. C. Choong, “A mapping approach to investigating Information and Communication Technology (ICT) implementation during the building design process,” Dr. Philos. Sch. Prop. Constr. Proj. Manag. RMIT Univ., 2006.

A. A. M. Al-araibi, M. Naz, M. Naz’ri bin Mahrin, and R. C. M. Yusoff, “Technological aspect factors of E-learning readiness in higher education institutions: Delphi technique,” Educ. Inf. Technol., pp. 1–24, 2018.

A. L. Delbecq, H. Van de Ven, David H. Gustafson, A. H. de Ven, and D. H. Gustafson, Group techniques for program planning: A guide to nominal group and Delphi processes, vol. 12. Scott Foresman, 1975.

I. A. Jillson, “The national drug-abuse policy delphi: progress report and findings to date,” Delphi Method Tech. Appl., pp. 124–158, 1975.

H. A. Linstone, M. Turoff, and others, The Delphi method: Techniques and applications, vol. 29. Addison-Wesley Reading, MA, 1975.

S. Siraj, A. R. Zakaria, N. Alias, D. Dewitt, P. Kannan, and J. Ganapathy, “Future Projection on Patriotism among School Students Using Delphi Technique,” Creat. Educ., vol. 03, no. 06, pp. 1053–1059, 2012.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development