Robust Approach of Optimal Control for DC Motor in Robotic Arm System using Matlab Environment

Hasan Abbas Hussein Al-khazarji, Mohammed Abdulla Abdulsada, Riyadh Bassil Abduljabbar


Modern automation robotics have replaced many human workers in industrial factories around the globe. The robotic arms are used for several manufacturing applications, and their responses required optimal control. In this paper, a robust approach of optimal position control for a DC motor in the robotic arm system is proposed. The general component of the automation system is first introduced. The mathematical model and the corresponding transfer functions of a DC motor in the robotic arm system are presented.  The investigations of using DC motor in the robotic arm system without controller lead to poor system performance. Therefore, the analysis and design of a Proportional plus Integration plus Divertive (PID) controller is illustrated. The tuning procedure of the PID controller gains is discussed to achieve the best responses of the DC motor. It is found that with the PID controller, the system performance is enhanced, especially in terms of steady-state error but does not provide the required optimal control.  The required approach of Ackerman's formula optimal controller based on state-space feedback is investigated. A GUI using the Matlab environment is created to obtain the DC motor's responses without using a controller and with controllers. It is found that the proposed approach of the optimal controller has more robustness and enhances the overall performance of the existing PID controller in the form of reducing settling times (from 2.23 second to 0.776 seconds), minimizing percent overshoot (from 27.7 % to 1.31 %) and zero value of steady-state error.


DC motor; robotic arm; PID controller; optimal controller; Matlab.

Full Text:



Y. He and X. Qing, Automatic Control, Mechatronics and Industrial Engineering, Proceedings of the International Conference on Automatic Control, Mechatronics and Industrial Engineering (ACMIE2018), 29-31Oct., Suzhou, China, Boca Raton, CRC Press, 2019.

Victor Iliushko, et. al., Automatic Control Systems, 1'st ed., Southport, UK, Marques Aviation, 2016.

R. C. Dorf and R. H. Bishop, Modern Control System, 13'th ed., Harlow, Essex, England, Pearson, 2017.

Hasan Abbas Hussein Al-khazarji, "Enhancing the performance of robotic arm system", International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET), Vol.7, Issue 4, pp.5629-5632, Nov. 2019.

M.O. Tokhi and A.K.M. Azad, Flexible Robot Manipulators: Modeling, Simulation, and Control, 2'nd ed., London, United Kingdom, IET, 2017.

R. Szewczyk, Zieliński Cezary, and Kaliczyńska Małgorzata, Automation 2019: Progress in Automation, Robotics and Measurement Techniques, Cham, Switzerland, Springer, 2020.

K. Kruthika, et al, "Design and development of a robotic arm", International Conference on Circuits, Controls, Communications and Computing (I4C2016), 2-4 Oct., Bangalore, India, 2016, pp. 1-4.

W. A. Ansari, et al, “A review on robotic process automation - the future of business organisations” , 2nd International Conference on Advances in Science & Technology (ICAST2019), 8-9 April, Mumbai, India, 2019, pp. 1-5.

C. K. Das and S. K. Swain, “Closed loop speed control of chopper fed DC motor for industrial drive application,” 2017 International Conference on Power and Embedded Drive Control (ICPEDC2017), 16-18 March, Chennai, India, 2017, pp. 478-483.

Devendra Somwanshi, et al, "Comparison of Fuzzy-PID and PID Controller for speed control of DC motor using Labview", Procedia Computer Science, Vol.152, pp. 252-260, 2019.

Alfa Bisoi, et al, "Control strategies for DC motors driving rotor dynamic systems through resonance", Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol.4,No.11, pp. 304-327, Dec. 2017.

N. Nurnuansuwan, A. Lonklang, and K. Chamniprasart, "A prototyping of 2-DOF robot arm using feedback control system", 5th International Conference on Control, Automation and Robotics (ICCAR2019), 19-22 April, Beijing, China,2019, pp. 368-372.

Xumei Lin, et al, "Design and research of DC motor speed control system based on improved BAS", IEEE, Chinese Automation Congress (CAC2018), 24 Jan. , Xi'an, China, 2018.

Ahmad M. Zaki et al, "Embedded two level direct adaptive fuzzy controller for DC motor speed control", Ain Shams Engineering Journal, Vol.9, Issue 1, pp. 65-75,March 2018.

M. Araki, et al, PID Control in Control Systems: Robotics and Automation, vol II, Eolss Publishers, Oxford, UK, 2009.

V. Yadav and V. K. Tayal, "Optimal controller design for a DC motor using PID tuner", International Conference on Power Energy, Environment and Intelligent Control (PEEIC2018), 13-14 April, Greater Noida, India, 2018, pp. 442-445.

Aminurrashid Noordin, et al, "Modelling and PSO fine-tuned PID control of quadrotor UAV", International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, Vol.7, No. 4, pp. 1367–1373, 2017.

K. Ogata, Modern Control Engineering, 5'th ed, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA, Prentice-Hall, 2010.

C. Dey and S. K. Sen, Industrial Automation Technologies, Boca Raton, FL., CRC Press, 2020.

Shah, R. and A.b. Pandey, "Concept for automated sorting robotic arm", Procedia Manufacturing, Vol. 20, pp. 400–405, Dec. 2018.

Mahmud Iwan Solihin, et al, "Tuning of PID controller using particle swarm optimisation (PSO)", Proceeding of the International Conference on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology 2011, 14-15 Jan., Bangi-Putrajaya, Malaysia, pp. 458-461, 2011.

Liu Fan and Er Meng Joo, "Design for auto-tuning PID controller based on genetic algorithms", Proceeding of 4th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA 2009), Xi'an, China, , 2009, pp. 1924-1928.

Tayfun Abut, "Modeling and optimal of a DC motor", International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, Vol.32, pp. 146-150, Feb. 2016.

Liuping Wang, PID Control System Design and Automatic Tuning using MATLAB/Simulink, 1'st ed., Wiley and John Sons Ltd., London, England, 2020. ‏

R. Shah and A. Pandey, "Concept for automated sorting robotic arm", Procedia Manufacturing, Vol. 20, pp. 400–405, Dec. 2018.

Yongli Zhang, et al, "An MEA-tuning method for design of the PID controller", Mathematical Problems in Engineering, Vol.2019, pp. 1-11, 2019.

Aarushi Thakur, et al, "Sine cosine algorithm assisted tuning of PID controller for dc servo-motor", International Conference on Computation, Automation and Knowledge Management (ICCAKM2020), 9-10 Jan., Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 2020, pp. 230 -233.

Mohammad Shamsuzzoha , PID Control for Industrial Processes, 1'st ed., London , UK, Intech Open Limited, 2018.

D. D. O. Francisco, et al, "A novel PID auto tuning approach: how to correct bad tuning by closed-loop performance assessment", IFAC-PapersOnLine, Vol. 52, No. 1, pp. 184–189, April 2019.

J. M. S. Ribeiro, et al, “Comparison of PID controller tuning methods: analytical/classical techniques versus optimisation algorithms”, 18th International Carpathian Control Conference (ICCC2017-), 28-31 May, Sinaia, Romania, 2017, pp. 533-538.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development