Preparation and Characterization of Biopolymer Chitosan Nanofiber from Coconut Crab Shell

Hamidin Rasulu, Danar Praseptiangga, I Made Joni, Ari Handono Ramelan

Abstract


The use of coconut crab shell waste as a chitosan product has the potential to be developed as a multifunctional product, especially in the form of the nanofiber. This study aims to prepare and characterization of biopolymer chitosan nanofiber from coconut crab shell. The method used in this study is an ionic gelation method using chitosan coconut crabs (chitosan CC) as the main medium, and the dispersion media is namely tripolyphosphate (TPP) with different concentrations to produce chitosan CC/TPP nanofibers. The chitosan is dissolved using glacial acetic acid 1% (v/v) low pH. Then the solution is dropped into a TPP solution with a concentration of 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 % (w/v), using a magnetic stirrer at 600 rpm for 30 minutes. The precipitate obtained is then homogenized using 30 minutes of ultrasonic at λ 60 kHz. The characterization of nanofiber is made with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with a magnification of 10.0kV. The morphological shape of the nanofiber size average value of 73 nm - 610 nm at the concentration of chitosan CC/TPP 0.25% (w/v) and 0.03% (w/v). Particle size analysis (PSA) of chitosan CC/TPP nanofibers (D50) at 536 - 625 nm with an average polydispersity index (PI) of 1.3 - 1.7. FT-IR analysis showed that the presence of functional groups NH, OH, C-C, CH varied in the concentration of 0.03% chitosan CC/TPP with the adsorption peak at wave 3257 cm-1. X-Ray Diffraction shows that chitosan crystallinity obtained from various concentrations of chitosan CC/TPP shows amorphous properties because there are diffraction patterns with peaks between 18.06° - 19.04°. The conclusion is that the best-recommended selection is a concentration of 0.25% chitosan and 0.03% TPP to form nanofibers. The nanofiber biopolymers with the natural suspension of chitosan CC/TPP polymer produce the best pore size and can be considered as a filler in the manufacture of edible films.

Keywords


coconut crab shells; chitosan; TPP; ionic gelation; nanofibers.

Full Text:

PDF

References


M. Donmez, H.A. Oktem, and M.D. Yilmaz, “Ratiometric fluorescence detection of an anthrax biomarker with Eu3+-chelated chitosan biopolymers,” Carbohydrate polymers, vol. 180, pp. 226-230, 2018.

K. Kim, M. Ha, B. Choi, S.H. Joo, H.S. Kang, J.H. Park, B. Gu, C. Park, J. Kim and S.K. Kwak, “Biodegradable, electro-active chitin nanofiber films for flexible piezoelectric transducers,” Nano Energy, vol. 48, pp. 275-283, 2018.

M. Mincea, A. Negrulescu and V. Ostafe, “Preparation, modification, and applications of chitin nanowhiskers: a review,” Rev Adv Mater Sci, vol. 30(3), pp.225-242, 2012.

T.T. Nguyen, A.R. Barber, P. Smith, X. Luo and W. Zhang, “Application and optimization of the highly efficient and environmentally-friendly microwave-intensified lactic acid demineralization of deproteinized Rock lobster shells (Jasus edwardsii) for chitin production,” Food and Bioproducts Processing, vol. 102, pp.367-374, 2017.

S. Kumari, S.H.K. Annamareddy, S. Abanti and P.K.. Rath, “Physicochemical properties and characterization of chitosan synthesized from fish scales, crab and shrimp shells,” International Journal of biological macromolecules, vol. 104, pp.1697-1705, 2017.

L.D.Y. Pozzo, T.F. da Conceição, A. Spinelli, N. Scharnagl and A.T. Pires, “Chitosan coatings crosslinked with genipin for corrosion protection of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets,” Carbohydrate polymers, vol. 181, pp.71-77, 2018.

A. Ali and S. Ahmed, “A review on chitosan and its nanocomposites in drug delivery,” International journal of biological macromolecules, 2017.

G. Smets and P. Rüdelsheim, “Biotechnologically produced chitosan for nanoscale products. A legal analysis,” New Biotechnology, vol. 42, pp.42-47, 2018.

L.A. van den Broek, R.J. Knoop, F.H. Kappen and C.G. Boeriu, “Chitosan films and blends for packaging material,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 116, pp.237-242, 2015.

A.I. Bourbon, A.C. Pinheiro, M.A. Cerqueira, C.M. Rocha, M.C. Avides, M.A. Quintas and A.A. Vicente, “Physico-chemical characterization of chitosan-based edible films incorporating bioactive compounds of different molecular weight. J. of Food Engineering, vol. 106(2), pp.111-118, 2011.

E. Jahed, M.A. Khaledabad, H. Almasi and R. Hasanzadeh, “Physicochemical properties of Carum copticum essential oil loaded chitosan films containing organic nanoreinforcements,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 164, pp.325-338, 2017.

G.I. Waterhouse and D. Sun-Waterhouse, “Bioactive Delivery Systems Based on Stimuli-Sensitive Biopolymer Stacks: Chitosan-Alginate Systems,” 2018.

I.M. Joni, C. Panatarani and D.W. Maulana, “Dispersion of fine phosphor particles by newly developed beads mill,” In AIP Conference Proceedings (Vol. 1712, No. 1, p. 050019), 2016.

E. Rochima, S.Y. Azhary, R.I. Pratama, C. Panatarani and I.M. Joni, “Preparation and Characterization of Nano Chitosan from Crab Shell Waste by Beads-milling Method,” In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (Vol. 193, No. 1, p. 012043), 2017.

S. Kalliola, E. Repo, V. Srivastava, J.P. Heiskanen, J.A. Sirviö, H. Liimatainen and M. Sillanpää, “The pH sensitive properties of carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles cross-linked with calcium ions,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 153, pp.229-236, 2017.

S. Hassani, A. Laouini, H. Fessi and C. Charcosset, “Preparation of chitosan–TPP nanoparticles using microengineered membranes–Effect of parameters and encapsulation of tacrine,” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, vol. 482, pp.34-43, 2015.

C.C. Sipoli, N. Santana, A.A.M. Shimojo, A. Azzoni and L.G. de la Torre, “Scalable production of highly concentrated chitosan/TPP nanoparticles in different pHs and evaluation of the in vitro transfection efficiency,” Biochemical engineering journal, vol. 94, pp.65-73, 2015.

S. Vimal, M.S. Abdul, G. Taju, K.S. Nambi, R.N. Sundar, N. Madan, M.A. Farook, T. Rajkumar, D. Gopinath and H.A. Sahul, “Retraction notice to Chitosan tripolyphosphate (CS/TPP) nanoparticles: Preparation, characterization and application for gene delivery in shrimp, " Acta tropica, vol. 168, p.91, 2017.

H.C. Yang and M.H. Hon, “The effect of the molecular weight of chitosan nanoparticles and its application on drug delivery,” Microchemical Journal, vol. 92(1), pp.87-91, 2009.

A.F. Martins, D.M. de Oliveira, A.G. Pereira, A.F. Rubira and E.C. Muniz, “Chitosan/TPP microparticles obtained by microemulsion method applied in controlled release of heparin,” International journal of biological macromolecules, vol. 51(5), pp.1127-1133, 2012.

Y. Zhang, C. Xue, Y. Xue, R. Gao and X. Zhang, “Determination of the degree of deacetylation of chitin and chitosan by X-ray powder diffraction,” Carbohydrate research, 340(11), pp.1914-1917, 2005.

M.T. Yen, J.H. Yang and J.L. Mau, “Physicochemical characterization of chitin and chitosan from crab shells,” Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 75(1), pp.15-21, 2009.

J. You, L. Zhu, Z. Wang, L. Zong, M. Li, X. Wu and C. Li, “Liquid exfoliated chitin nanofibrils for re-dispersibility and hybridization of two-dimensional nanomaterials,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 344, pp.498-505, 2018.

E. Rochima, S. Utami, H. Hamdani, S.Y. Azhary, D. Praseptiangga, I.M. Joni and C. Panatarani, “The dispersion of fine chitosan particles by beads-milling,” In AIP Conference Proceedings (Vol. 1927, No. 1, p. 030032), 2018.

D. Rachmania, “Karakteristik nano kitosan cangkang udang vannamei (Litopenaeus vannamei) dengan metode gelasi ionic, 2011.

P. Suptijah, A.M. Jacoeb and D. Rachmania, “Karakterisasi nano kitosan cangkang udang vannamei (Litopenaeus vannamei) dengan metode gelasi ionic,” Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia, 14(2), 2011.

Y. Huang, Y. Cai and Y. Lapitsky, “Factors affecting the stability of chitosan/tripolyphosphate micro-and nanogels: resolving the opposing findings,” Journal of Materials Chemistry B, vol. 3(29), pp.5957-5970, 2015.

M.R Avadi, A. M. Sadeghi, M. Mohammadpour, “Preparation and characterization of insulin nanoparticles using chitosan and arabic gum with ionic gelation metod. J. Nanomeicine: vol. 6. 58-63, 2009.

T. Phaechamud, “Hydrophobically modified chitosans and their pharmaceutical applications,” J. of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, vol. 1, pp.2-9, 2008.

L. Qi and Z. Xu, “Lead sorption from aqueous solutions on chitosan nanoparticles,” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, vol. 251(1-3), pp.183-190, 2004.

S.D. Sarkar, B. L. Farrugia, T.R. Dargaville and S. Dhara, “Physico-chemical/biological properties of tripolyphosphate cross-linked chitosan based nanofibers,” Materials Science and Engineering: C, 33(3), pp.1446-1454, 2013.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18517/ijaseit.9.3.8380

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.



Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development