Removal of Cu2+ Ions Using Activated Carbon from Palm Kernel Shell Waste by Liquid Smoke Activation

Muhammad Faisal, - Abubakar, Sandi Putra Kelana, Dodi Eko Nanda, Hiroyuki Daimon


Copper (Cu2+) ions has been recognized as hazardous heavy metal and having negative effects on human health, animal, plants, and environment. Therefore, the removal of Cu2+ from contaminated water to an acceptable level is necessary. In this research,  activated carbon prepared from palm kernel shell waste products has been used for the removal of Cu2+ ions from aqueous solutions. The oil palm shells were pyrolyzed at 380 °C, producing charcoal and liquid smoke. The carbon material was modified to nano size and activated by liquid smoke to generate activated carbon with a well developed porous structure and distribution porosity. The activated carbon was then characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All experiments were conducted in a batch process with initial metal concentrations in the range 30–150 ppm, contact times in the range 30–150 min and at room temperature. The best conditions for high removal efficiency of Cu2+ was investigated. The adsorption isotherm of the Langmuir and Freundlich models were used to analyze the data obtained. The kinetic of first and second-order models were also studied. The highest removal efficiency of 97.5% was obtained at a contact time of 60 min, an initial Cu2+ concentration of 30 ppm, and an agitation speed of 200 rpm. The Freundlich isotherm model was well fitted (R2=0.937) and indicated pseudo-first-order chemisorption. Based on the results, the activated carbon with liquid smoke activation would be an alternative adsorbent in removing Cu2+ from industrial wastewater.


adsorption; activated carbon; nanoparticles; liquid smoke; Cu2+ removal.

Full Text:



J. Dai, W. Wang, W. Wu, J. Gao, and C. Dong, “Adsorption and desorption of Cu 2+ on paddy soil aggregates pretreated with different levels of phosphate,” J. Environ. Sci., vol. 55, pp. 311-320, May 2017

Y. Zhou, L. Zhang, and Z. Cheng, “Removal of organic pollutants from aqueous solution using agricultural wastes: a review,” J. Mol. Liq., vol. 212, pp. 739-762, Dec. 2015

Y. Dai, K. Zhang, J. Li, Y. Jiang, Y. Chen, and S. Tanaka, “Adsorption of copper and zinc onto carbon material in an aqueous solution oxidised by ammonium peroxydisulphate,” Sep. Purif. Technol., vol. 2, pp. 255-263, Oct. 2017

Z.C. Wu, Z.Z. Wang, J. Liu, J.H. Yin, and S.P. Kuang, “A new porous magnetic chitosan modified by melamine for fast and efficient adsorption of Cu (II) ions,” Int J Biol Macromol., vol. 81, pp. 838-846, Nov. 2015

M.A. Hossain, H.H. Ngo, W.S. Guo, and T.V. Nguyen, “Palm oil fruit shells as biosorbent for copper removal from water and wastewater: experiments and sorption models,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 113, pp. 97-101, Jun 2012

E. Gunasundari, and S. Kumar, “Adsorption isotherm, kinetics and thermodynamic analysis of Cu (II) ions onto the dried algal biomass (Spirulina platensis),” J. Ind.Eng. Chem., vol. 56, pp. 129-144, Dec. 2017

M. Bansal, A. Mudhoo, V.K. Garg, and D. Singh, “ Preparation and characterisation of biosorbents and copper sequestration from simulated wastewater,” Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol., vol.11(5), pp. 1399-1412, July 2014

Q. Zhu, L. Wang, Z. An, H.Ye, and X. Feng, “Hydrothermal synthesis of silico-manganese nanohybrid for Cu (II) adsorption from aqueous solution,” Appl. Surf. Sci., vol. 371, pp. 102-111, May 2016

Y. Xue, S. Wu, and M. Zhou, “Adsorption characterisation of Cu (II) from aqueous solution onto basic oxygen furnace slag,” Chem. Eng. J., vol. 231, pp. 355-364, Sep. 2013

M.O. Ojemaye, O.O. Okoh, and A.I. Okoh, “Adsorption of Cu2+ from aqueous solution by a novel material; azomethine functionalised magnetic nanoparticles,” Sep. Purif. Technol., vol.183, pp.204-215, Aug. 2017

L.H. Reddy, J.L. Arias, J. Nicolas, and P. Couvreur, “Magnetic nanoparticles: design and characterisation, toxicity and biocompatibility, pharmaceutical and biomedical applications,” Chem. Rev., vol.112(11), pp. 5818-5878, Oct. 2012

I. Ali, “New generation adsorbents for water treatment,” Chem. Rev., vol. 112(10), pp. 5073-5091, Jun. 2012.

S.C. Tang, and I.M. Lo, “Magnetic nanoparticles: essential factors for sustainable environmental applications,” Water Res., vol. 47(8), pp. 2613-2632, May 2013

J. Huang, H. Xie, H. Ye, T. Xie, Y. Lin, Y. J. Gong, C. Jiang, Y. Wu, S. Liu, Y. Cui, and J. Mao, “ Effect of carboxyethylation degree on the adsorption capacity of Cu (II) by N-(2-carboxyethyl) chitosan from squid pens,” Carbohydr. Polym., vol. 138, pp. 301-308, Mar 2016

A. Kamari, S.N.M. Yusoff, F. Abdullah, and W.P. Putra, “Biosorptive removal of Cu (II), Ni (II) and Pb (II) ions from aqueous solutions using coconut dregs residue: adsorption and characterisation studies,” J. Environ. Chem. Eng., vol. 2(4), pp. 1912-1919, Dec. 2014

Z.N. Garba, I. Bello, A. Galadima, and A.Y. Lawal, “Optimisation of adsorption conditions using central composite design for the removal of copper (II) and lead (II) by defatted papaya seed,” Karbala Int. J Mod. Sci., vpl. 2(1), pp. 20-28, Mar 2016

H. Koyuncu, and A.R. Kul, “An investigation of Cu (II) adsorption by native and activated bentonite: kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic study,” J. Environ. Chem. Eng., vol. 2(3), pp. 1722-1730, Sep. 2014

W.W. Ngah, L.C. Teong, R.H. Toh, and M.A.K.M. Hanafiah, “Utilisation of chitosan–zeolite composite in the removal of Cu (II) from aqueous solution: adsorption, desorption and fixed bed column studies,” Chem. Eng. J., vol. 209, pp. 46-53, Oct. 2012

O.H. Kwon, J.O. Kim, D.W. Cho, R. Kumar, S.H. Baek, M.B. Kurade, and B.H. Jeon, “Adsorption of As (III), As (V) and Cu (II) on zirconium oxide immobilised alginate beads in aqueous phase,” Chemosphere, vol. 160, pp.126-133, Oct. 2016

M. Gan, S. Sun, Z. Zheng, H. Tang, J. Sheng, J. Zhu, and X. Liu, “Adsorption of Cr (VI) and Cu (II) by AlPO4 modified biosynthetic Schwertmannite,” Appl. Surf. Sci, vol. 356, pp. 986-997, Nov. 2015

Q. Xu, Y. Wang, L. Jin, Y. Wang, and M. Qin, “Adsorption of Cu (II), Pb (II) and Cr (VI) from aqueous solutions using black wattle tannin-immobilised nanocellulose,” J. Hazard Mater., vol. 339, pp. 1-99, Oct. 2017

M. Faisal, A. Gani, Husni and H. Daimon, “A preliminary study of the utilisation of liquid smoke from palm kernel shells for organic mouthwash,” Int. J. GEOMATE, vol. 13 (37), pp. 116-120, Sep. 2017

M. Faisal, A. Gani, and Abubakar, “Removal of Copper Ions from Aqueous Solution using Palm Shell Charcoal Activated by NaOH,” Int. J. GEOMATE, vol. 15 (48), pp. 143-147, Aug. 2018

M.Faisal, A.Gani, Husni, A.Baihaqi, and H. Daimon, “Pyrolysis of oil palm kernel shell into liquid smoke and its application to control anthracnose disease on chili (capsicum annum L.),” J. Eng. Appl. Sci., vol. 11 (12), pp. 2583-2587,2016.

A. Gani, and M. Faisal, “Evaluation of liquid smoke-activated palm kernel shells biochar for cadmium adsorption,”Rasayan J. Chem., In press

Z. Ma, D. Chen, J. Gu, B. Bao, and Q. Zhang, “Determination of pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of palm kernel shell using TGA–FTIR and model-free integral methods, “Energy Convers. Manag., vol. 89, pp. 251-259, Jan. 2015

Z.C. Wu, Z.Z. Wang, J. Liu, J.H. Yin, and S.P. Kuang, “A new porous magnetic chitosan modified by melamine for fast and efficient adsorption of Cu (II) ions,” Int J Biol Macromol., vol. 81, pp. 838-846, Nov. 2015

Q. He, J. Dai, L. Zhu, K. Xiao, and Y. Yin, “Synthesis and lead absorption properties of sintered activated carbon supported zero-valent iron nanoparticle,” J. Alloys Compd., vol. 687, pp. 326-333, Dec. 2016

A.S. Semerciöz, F. Göğüş, A. Çelekli, and H. Bozkurt, “Development of carbonaceous material from grapefruit peel with microwave implemented-low temperature hydrothermal carbonisation technique for the adsorption of Cu (II),” J.Clean. Prod., vol. 165, pp. 599-610, Nov. 2017

I. Mobasherpour, E. Salahi, and M. Ebrahimi, “Thermodynamics and kinetics of adsorption of Cu (II) from aqueous solutions onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes,” J. Saudi Chem. Soc., vol. 18(6), 792-801, Dec. 2014



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development