Physicochemical Properties of Pectin Extracted from Selected Local Fruits By-Product
Pectin was extracted from selected local fruits by-product, which was a banana, mango, and papaya peel by using the citric acid solution as a solvent. The primary objectives of this study were to extract pectin from selected local fruits by-product as well as, to determine and compare the physicochemical properties of extracted pectin to that of commercial pectin. Pectin extracted from mango peel gave the highest yield significantly (15.4%) as compared to banana peel pectin (14.47%) and papaya peel pectin (12.77%). The physicochemical properties of pectin obtained were compared with commercial pectin. These include color, degree of esterification (DE), ash, moisture, solubility, and viscosity. The color measurement of pectin showed it has a significant difference between other types of pectin. The color parameter L (lightness) showed commercial pectin had the highest value of 89.17 significantly, yet significantly the lowest of a* (redness) value of 1.72. Hence, thecolor parameter b* (yellowness) showed that the papaya peel pectin was significantly the highest (17.65) as compared to other types of pectin. All pectins in this study were of high methoxyl pectin as the DE was found to be more than 50%. No significant difference was noted for DE between commercial pectin and both banana and mango peel pectin. As for the ash content, banana peel pectin has significantly the highest ash content of about 4.60% compared to other types of pectin. Moisture content also showed a significant difference between all kinds of pectin. Solubility analysis also indicated significant difference between all types of pectin in this study with commercial pectin to possess the highest solubility (98.37%) as compared to other types of pectin. No significant difference was noted for viscosity between commercial pectin and mango peel pectin. Based on this study, it can be concluded that pectin extracted from mango peel possess high chances to be exploited and commercialized as most of the physicochemical analysis carried out showed no significant difference to that of commercial pectin.
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