Evaluation of Bismuth Oxide Nanoparticles as Radiosensitizer for Megavoltage Radiotherapy
Metal-based nanoparticles such as gold, silver, platinum, and bismuth have been widely investigated for radiotherapeutic application. Basic understanding of the cellular interaction of the nanoparticles with the biological materials is crucial to ensure future clinical use. In this study, the cytotoxicity, cellular uptake, and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by BiONPs were investigated prior elucidating the feasibility of BiONPs for radiotherapy application using megavoltage photon and electron beams. The BiONPs of diameter sizes 60, 70, 80 and 90 nm at concentrations within a range of 0.5 to 0.00005 mMol/L were tested on MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and NIH/3T3 cells lines. The cytotoxicity results exhibit minimal cell death constituting less than 20 % of mortality on average. The ROS generation by BiONPs alone is found to be negligible as the ROS levels were slightly lower and higher than 100% of positive control. The increment of cellular nanoparticles uptake from a range of 1.50 % to 34.10 % indicates that BiONPs were internalized and bound to the surface of the cells. Sequencing from the results, 60 nm BiONPs are found to be the most suitable to be applied as a radiosensitizer in radiotherapy. Sensitization enhancement ratio (SER) quantified on MCF-7 cells demonstrated the highest enhancement from the highest concentration of BiONPs with SER of 2.29 and 1.42, for 10 MV photon beam and 6 MeV electron beam, respectively. In contrast to ROS production without radiation, the ROS induced from radiotherapy beams were found to be dose-dependent and play significant roles in radiosensitization effect. In conclusion, BiONPs could improve clinical radiotherapy, and further radiobiological characterization is crucial for future clinical translation.
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