The Design and Performance of Continuous Porang (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume) Flour Mills

Mochamad Bagus Hermanto, Simon Bambang Widjanarko, Wahyono Suprapto, Agus Suryanto


Indonesian Porang flour (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume) is made into glucomannan flour because of its beneficial health effects. However, the challenge in producing flour is calcium oxalate which must be eliminated, because it can irritate the skin and may cause a kidney stones if the flour is consumed. Over the past 10 years, several batch grinding methods have been used to produce good quality Porang flour. However, there has been no research on the continuous method of grinding Porang flour using a ball mill. Both the stamp mill and batch type ball mill processes had low production capacities. Therefore, the aim of this work is to design a Continuous Porang Flour Mill (CPFM) machine and test its performance for Porang flour production. The CPFM machine consists of a continuous ball mill and a cyclone separator. The experiments were carried out at a ball mill rotation speed of 65 ± 1 rpm, with a capacity of up to 780.67 g / h input of chip material, producing an output of 33.1 - 57.1%. The CPFM meets the low-temperature grinding requirements but is still needed to provide acoustic hearing protection for the operator due to the high level of loudness. CPFM produces Porang flour with glucomannan levels ranging from 80.79% to 87.79% and calcium oxalate ranging from 0.12% to 0.29%. The calcium oxalate content overall was under 0.3%, which is better compared when compared to other milling methods.


porang powder; glucomannan powder; ball mills grinding; calcium oxalate.

Full Text:



G. O. Phillips and P. A. Williams, Handbook of hydrocolloids: CRC Press, 2000.

M. Chua, T. C. Baldwin, T. J. Hocking and K. Chan, "Traditional uses and potential health benefits of Amorphophallus konjac K. Koch ex N.E.Br", Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 128, pp. 268-278, 2010.

C. M. Gallaher, J. Munion, R. Hesslink, J. Wise and D. D. Gallaher, "Cholesterol reduction by glucomannan and chitosan is mediated by changes in cholesterol absorption and bile acid and fat excretion in rats", The Journal of nutrition, vol. 130, pp. 2753-2759, 2000.

F. H. Al-Ghazzewi, S. Khanna, R. F. Tester and J. Piggott, "The potential use of hydrolysed konjac glucomannan as a prebiotic", Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 87, pp. 1758-1766, 2007.

C. Wang, M. Xu, W.-p. Lv, P. Qiu, Y.-y. Gong and D.-s. Li, "Study on Rheological Behavior of Konjac Glucomannan", Physics Procedia, vol. 33, pp. 25-30, 2012.

A. Yanuriati, D. W. Marseno and E. Harmayani, "Characteristics of glucomannan isolated from fresh tuber of Porang (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume)", Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 156, pp. 56-63, 2017.

O. Tatirat and S. Charoenrein, "Physicochemical properties of konjac glucomannan extracted from konjac flour by a simple centrifugation process", LWT - Food Science and Technology, vol. 44, pp. 2059-2063, 2011.

L. K. Massey, H. Roman-Smith and R. A. L. Sutton, "Effect of dietary oxalate and calcium on urinary oxalate and risk of formation of calcium oxalate kidney stones", Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 93, pp. 901-906, 1993.

A. Bhandari, S. Koul, A. Sekhon, S. K. Pramanik, L. S. Chaturvedi, M. Huang, M. Menon and H. K. Koul, "Effects of Oxalate 0n HK-2 Cells, a Line of Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells From Normal Human Kidney", The Journal of urology, vol. 168, pp. 253-259, 2002.

A. Faridah, S. B. Widjanarko, A. J. I. Sutrisno and B. Susilo, "Optimasi Produksi Tepung Porang dari Chip Porang Secara Mekanis dengan Metode Permukaan Respons", Jurnal Teknik Industri, vol. 13, pp. 158-166, 2013.

N. Chairiyah, N. Harijati and R. Mastuti, "Variation of Calcium Oxalate (CaOx) Crystals in Porang (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume)", American Journal of Plant Sciences, vol. 4, pp. 1765-1773, 2013.

C. M. o. Agriculture, Professional Standard of the people Republic of China for Konjac Flour, 2002.

F. C. C. (FCC), Revised Monograph-Konjac Flour, 1996.

E. Commission, Commission Directive 2001/30/EC of 2001, Amending Directive 96/77/EC Laying Down Specific Purity Criteria on Food Additives Other than Colours and Sweeteners, Brussels, 2001.

A. Faridah, "Comperation of Porang Flour (morphophallus muelleri) Purification Method: Conventional Maceration (gradient ethanol leaching) and Ultrasonic Maceration Method using Response Surface Methodology", International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, vol. 6, pp. 265-272, 2016.

A. Faridah and S. B. Widjanarko, "Optimization of multilevel ethanol leaching process of porang flour (Amorphophallus muelleri) using response surface methodology", International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, vol. 3, pp. 74-80, 2013.

D. A. Anggraeni, S. B. Widjanarko and D. W. Ningtyas, "Proporsi Tepung Porang (Amorphophallus Muelleri Blume): Tepung Maizena terhadap Karakteristik Sosis Ayam [In Press Juli 2014]", Jurnal Pangan dan Agroindustri, vol. 2, pp. 214-223, 2014.

S. B. Widjanarko, Q. Amalia, M. B. Hermanto and A. Z. Mubarok, "Evaluation of the effect of yellow konjac flour-κ-carrageenan mixed gels and red koji rice extracts on the properties of restructured meat using response surface methodology", Journal of food science and technology, vol. 55, pp. 1781-1788, 2018.

N. O. S. Dananjaya and A. Sutrisno, "Optimasi Proses Penepungan dengan Metode ”Stamp Mill” dan Pemurnian Tepung Porang dengan Metode Ekstraksi Etanol Bertingkat untuk Pengembangan Industri Tepung Porang (Amorphophallus oncopylus)", Bachelor (STP) Thesis, Jurusan Teknologi Hasil Pertanian, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, 2010.

A. D. Kurniawati and S. B. Widjanarko, "Effects of Multiple Ethanol Leaching with Difference Concentration on Physical and Chemical Properties of Porang Flour (Amorphophallus oncophyllus)", Bachelor, Food Science and Technology Department, Brawijaya University, Malang, 2010.

N. Nandiwilastio and S. B. Widjanarko, "Pengaruh Rasio Chips dengan Bola Penumbuk Ball Mill Terhadap Rendemen dan Kemampuan Hidrasi Tepung Porang", Jurnal Pangan dan Agroindustri, vol. 2, pp. 106-112, 2014.

S. Mustafa and S. B. Widjanarko, "Pengecilan Ukuran Metode Ball Mill dan Pemurnian Kimia terhadap Kemurnian Tepung Porang (Amorphophallus Muelleri Blume)", Jurnal Pangan dan Agroindustri, vol. 3, 2015.

S. B. Widjanarko, E. Widyastuti and F. I. Rozaq, "Pengaruh Lama Penggilingan Tepung Porang (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume) dengan Metode Ball Mill (Cyclone Separator) terhadap Sifat Fisik dan Kimia Tepung Porang", Jurnal Pangan dan Agroindustri, vol. 3, 2015.

L. Wang, "Theoretical study of cyclone design", PhD, Biological & Agricultural Engineering, Texas A&M University, Texas, USA, 2004.

J. G. Brennan, Food Processing Handbook: WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2006.

J. W. Schlanz, Grinding: An Overview of Operation and Design: North Carolina State University Minerals Research Laboratory, 1987.

C. Association of Official Analytical and W. Horwitz, Official methods of analysis: AOAC Washington, DC, 1980.

H. Sugisawa and H. Edo, "The thermal degradation of sugars I. Thermal polymerization of glucose", Journal of Food Science, vol. 31, pp. 561-565, 1966.

C. Promdej and Y. Matsumura, "Temperature effect on hydrothermal decomposition of glucose in sub-and supercritical water", Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 50, pp. 8492-8497, 2011.

P. M. Rabinowitz, "Noise-induced hearing loss", American family physician, vol. 61, pp. 2759-2760, 2000.

G. Wan, G. Sun, X. Xue and M. Shi, "Solids concentration simulation of different size particles in a cyclone separator", Powder Technology, vol. 183, pp. 94-104, 2008.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development