A New Method for Battery Lifetime Estimation Using Experimental Testbed for Zigbee Wireless Technology

Dahlila Putri Dahnil, Supiah Selamat, Khairul Azmi Abu Bakar, Rosilah Hassan, Ahmad G. Ismail

Abstract


Many Zigbee-based wireless sensor networks have been developed for outdoor applications such as agriculture monitoring. The main attractiveness of Zigbee wireless module is in its potential to set up self-organizing network that requires no network backbone and extremely low cost with low-power wireless networking. Many simulations have been performed for testing the capabilities of wireless communication device and the battery lifetime. However, the results from the simulation do not capture the actual environment effects and the simulators allow users to isolate certain factors by tuning to different parameters. This paper provides experimental results on actual voltage drop using Zigbee protocol devices when communicating temperature, humidity and soil moisture data using a 900mAh battery both in indoor and outdoor environments. It is observed that the wireless nodes are capable of relaying data up to 143 meters on unobstructed line of sights in an outdoor environment with some observation of packet drop. The results differ from previous researches that perform the experiments on shorter range which only covers 50 cm distance between transmitter node and receiver node for 2 bytes of data transfer. The paper proposes a new method for battery lifetime estimation which is derived from number of times data packet can be transmitted. This study also suggests to conduct experiment by including the environmental factors to capture the actual performance of wireless device and the impact to packet drop. The experiment concludes the suitability of Zigbee wireless communication for short-range applications of up to 143 meters which is significantly farther than other reported experiments.


Keywords


Zigbee wireless technology; Arduino; Xbee; lifetime.

Full Text:

PDF

References


M. A. Mahmood, W. K. G. Seah, I. Welch, “Reliability in Wireless Sensor Networks: A survey and challenges ahead” 2015, Computer Networks, Vol 79, pp 166-187.

D. P. Dahnil, Y. P. Singh and C. K. Ho, “Topology-Controlled adaptive clustering for uniformity and increased lifetime in wireless sensor networks,” IET Wireless Sensor Systems, 2012, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 318-327

W. Dargie and C. Poellabauer, Fundamental of Wireless Sensor Networks: Theory and Practice. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, 2010, pp. 3-16.

S. N. More and M Nighot, “A review of wireless sensor network for agriculture,” International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trend in Computing and Communication, 2016, vol. 4, no. 6, pp.4 -7.

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., IEEE Std. 802.15.4. 2003, Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for Low Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs).

H. Zawia, R. Hassan, D. P. Dahnil, “Enhancement of real-time application IEEE 802.11e using dynamics contention windows approach,” Advanced Science Letter, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 1874-1881, August 2016

E. Casilari, G. Campos-Garrido and J. M. Cano-García, “Characterization of battery consumption in 802.15.4/ZigBee sensor motes,” 2010 IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, pp. 3471-3476, November 2010.

S. Malge, K. Bhole, “Novel, low cost remotely operated smart irrigation system” In International Conference on Industrial Instrumentation and Control (ICIC), 2015, 1501-1505.

J.T Devaraju, K.R. Suhas, H.K. Mohana, V.A. Patil, “ Wireless Portable Microcontroller based weather monitoring station” Measurement, 2016, Vol 76, pp 189-200.

F. Aliyu, M. Garba,, et al., “Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas safety system for oil drilling sites using wireless sensor network,” Procedia Computer Science, vol. 64, pp. 499-504, 2015.

X. Lu, P. Wang, D. Niyato, D.I. Kim, Z. Han, “Wireless Networks with RF Energy Harvesting: A Contemporary Survey” IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, 2015, vol 17 (2), 757 -789.

T. Ojha, S. Misra, N. S. Raghuwanshi, “Wireless sensor networks for agriculture: the state-of-the-art in practice and future challenges,” Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, vol. 118, pp. 66-84, October 2015

S. A. Nikolidakis, D. Kandris, D.D. Vergados, “Energy efficient automated control of irrigation in agriculture by using wireless sensor networks” 2015, Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, vol 113 pp 154-163.

L. M. Feeney, Towards a Better Battery Model for INET. In 3rd OMNeT++ Community Summit, 2015.

F. Yu and R. Jain, “A Survey of Wireless Sensor Network Simulation Tools,” Washington University in St. Louis, Department of Science and Engineering, April 2011

N. Mukherjee, S. Neogy and S. Roy, Building Wireless Sensor Networks: Theoretical and Practical Perspective. Boca Raton, London New York: CRC Press, 2016, pp. 4-5

Zhang, Z., et al., “Survey on the water-saving agricultural internet of things based on wireless sensor network” International Journal of

Control and Automation, 2015. 8(4): p. 229-240

D. Pašalić, D. Bundalo, Z. Bundalo and B. Cvijić, “ZigBee-based data transmission and monitoring wireless smart sensor network integrated with the Internet,” 2015 4th Mediterranean Conference on Embedded Computing (MECO), Budva, pp. 240-243, June 2015

A. Augustin, J. Yi, T. Clausen, and W. M. Townsley, “A study of LoRa: long range & low power networks for the internet of things,” Sensors, vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 1466 September 2016,

Y. B. Shi, Y. P. Shi, D. B. Xiu, X. Wang, M. M. Wang, R. X. Wang, “Design of wireless sensor system for the agricultural micro environment based on wifi,” Applied Mechanics and Materials, vol. 303-306, pp. 215-222, February 2013,

J. Petäjäjärvi, K. Mikhaylov, M. Hämäläinen and J. Iinatti, “Evaluation of LoRa LPWAN technology for remote health and wellbeing monitoring,” 2016 10th International Symposium on Medical Information and Communication Technology (ISMICT), Worcester, MA, pp. 1-5. June 2016,

P.B. Chikankar, D.Mehetre, S. Das, “An automatic irrigation system using ZigBee in wireless sensor network.” In International Conference on Pervasive Computing (ICPC), 1-5, 2015.

S. A. Hussein, and D. P. Dahnil, “A new hybrid technique to improve the path in reducing energy consumption in mobile ad-hoc networks,” IJAER, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 277-282, 2017.

Y. Rao, W.Xu. J.Zhu, Z. Jiang, R. Wang, S. Li, “Practical deployment of an in-field wireless sensor network in date palm orchard,” International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, Vol 13, No 5, May 2017

T. Ojha, S. Misra, N.S. Raghuwanshi, “Wireless sensor Networks for agriculture: The state-of-the-artin practice and future challenges”. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 2015, 118, pp 66-84

Liu, Y., et al., “Enterprise-oriented IoT name service for agricultural product supply chain management.” International Journal of

Distributed Sensor Networks, 2015.

Li, J., M. Guo, and L. Gao, “Application and innovation strategy of agricultural Internet of Things” Nongye Gongcheng

Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering, 2015. 31, p. 200-209.

Liu, X., “Traceability system design for fruits and vegetables safety based on internet of things technology” Advance Journal of Food

Science and Technology, 2015. 8(10): p. 711-715

H. Ling and Y. Qiuying, “The application of wireless communication technology in precision agriculture,” Agricultural Science & Technology And Equipment, pp. 49-53, 2009.

D. P. Dahnil and R. Hassan, “Wireless Sensor Networks: A Framework for Community and Educational Gardens” Advanced Science Letters, 2018, Vol 24 (2), pp 1153-1157.

M. Mawois, C. Aubry, M. Le-Bail, “Can farmers extend their cultivation areas in urban agriculture? a contribution from agronomic analysis of market gardening systems around mahajanga (madagascar),” Land Use Policy, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 434-445, April 2011.

Dhanekula, H., & Kumar, K. K. “GSM and Web Application based Real-Time Automatic Irrigation System using Raspberry pi 2 and 8051” Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 2016, 9(17).

A. J. Garcia-Sanchez, F. Garcia-Sanchez, and J. Garcia-Haro, “Wireless sensor network deployment for integrating video-surveillance and data-monitoring in precision agriculture over distributed crops,” Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 288-303, February 2011.

C. Goumopoulos, B. O’Flynn and A. Kameas, “Automated zone-specific irrigation with wireless sensor/actuator network and adaptable decision support,” Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 2014, vol. 105, pp.20-33.

S. A. H. Z. Abidin and S. N. Ibrahim, “Web-based monitoring of an automated fertigation system: An IoT application,” 2015 IEEE 12th Malaysia International Conference on Communications (MICC), Kuching, pp. 1-5, October 2016.

B. B. Bhanu, K. R. Rao, J. V. N. Ramesh and M. A. Hussain, “Agriculture field monitoring and analysis using wireless sensor networks for improving crop production,” 2014 Eleventh International Conference on Wireless and Optical Communications Networks (WOCN), Vijayawada, pp. 1-7, October 2014.

G. Rezai, M. N. Shamsudin, Z. Mohamed and J. Sharifuddin, “Factor influencing public participation in urban agriculture in malaysia,” Malay, vol. 256, pp. 40, December 2014.

J. J. Zhou, X. F. Wang, X. Wang, W. Zou, and J. C. Cai, “Greenhouse monitoring and control system based on zigbee,” In Applied Mechanics and Materials, Trans Tech Publications, vol. 347-350, pp. 768-771, August 2013.

T. Kalaivani, A. Allirani and P. Priya, “A survey on zigbee based wireless sensor networks in agriculture,” 3rd International Conference on Trendz in Information Sciences & Computing (TISC2011), Chennai, pp. 85-89, March 2012,

M. Hussnain et al., “Investigating multi-topological zigbee based wireless sensor network in precision agriculture,” Journal of Basics and Applied Scientific Research, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 195-201, 2013.

I. Lamprinos, M. Charalambides and M. Chouchoulis, “Greenhouse monitoring system based on a wireless sensor network,” 22nd International Electronic Conference on Sensors and Applications, November 2015.

G. V. Satyanarayana and S. D. Mazaruddin, “Wireless sensor based remote monitoring system for agriculture using zigbee and gps,” Conference on Advances in Communication and Control Systems (CAC2S) 2013, pp. 110-114, 2013.

F. Cuomo, A. Abbagnale and E. Cipollone, “Cross-layer network formation for energy-efficient ieee 802.15.4/zigbee wireless sensor networks,” Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 672-686, March 2013.

J. Swetha and B. P. Raveendra, “Zigbee based management system,” IJESRT, vol. 2, no. 9, pp. 2463-2466, September 2013.

K. Krishnamurthi, S. Thapa, L. Kothari, “Arduino based weather monitoring system”, 2015. International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science, Vol 3, Issue 2, pp 452-458

B. V. Tuijl, E. V. Os, and E. V. Henten, “Wireless sensor networks: state of the art and future perspective,” In International Symposium on High Technology for Greenhouse System Management: Greensys, vol. 801, pp. 547-554, October 2007.

D. P. Dahnil, Y. P. Singh, and C. K. Ho, “Topology-controlled adaptive clustering for uniformity and increased lifetime in wireless sensor networks,” IET Wireless Sensor Networks, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 318-327, December 2012.

J.S. Lee, Y.W. Su, C.C. Shen, “A comparative study of wireless protocols: Bluetooth, UWB, ZigBee, and Wi-Fi,” In Proceedings of 33rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON), Taipei, Taiwan, 2007, pp. 46-51

K. Shuaib, M. Alnuaimi, M. Boulmalf, I. Jawhar, F. Sallabi, A. Lakas, “Performance evaluation of IEEE 802.15.4: experimental and simulation results” J. Commun. 2007, 2, pp. 29-37

M. Petrova, J. Riihijarvi, P. Mahonen, S. Labella, “Performance study of IEEE 802.15. 4 using measurements and simulations” In Wireless communications and networking conference, 2006, 1, pp. 487-492.

Texas Instruments, CC2520 (Second generation 2.4 GHz ZigBee/IEEE 802.15.4 RF transceiver). Available online: http://focus.ti.com/docs/prod/folders/print/cc2520.html (accessed on 28 January 2010).

Arduino UNO. https://www.arduino.cc/en/Main/ArduinoBoardUno, accessed 16 January 2017

XBee Datasheet. 2017. https://www.sparkfun.com/datasheets/Wireless/Zigbee/XBee-Datasheet.pdf.

XCTU. 2017 https://www.digi.com/products/xbee-rf-solutions/xctu-software/xctu.

Anemometer BENETECH GM816. 2017. http://mikroelectron.com/Product/BENETECH-GM816-Mini-Digital-Anemometer-Wind-Speed-Temperature-Tester/.

GE Power RC PACK 900mAh Battery. 2017. http://www.dx.com/p/ge-power-900-11-1v-900mah-25c-li-ion-battery-pack-for-r-c-helicopter-black-217458#.WL-0zjt97IU.

W. B. Heinzelman, A. P. Chandrakasan, H. Balakrishnan, “An application-specific protocol architecture for wireless microsensor networks,” IEEE Transaction on Wireless Communication 2002, 1, (4), pp. 660-670

E. Casilari, G. Campos-Garrido, J.M. Cano-García, “Modelling of Current Consumption in 802.15.4/Zigbee Sensor Motes”, Sensor 2010, 10, 5443-5468




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18517/ijaseit.8.6.6388

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.



Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development