Demarcation Study on Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement Contents in Recycled Hot Mix Asphalt Mixtures for Wearing Course in Asphalt Pavements

Bereket Samuel Zemedkun, Osamu Takahashi


The present study evaluated reclaimed asphalt (RAP) containing hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixtures performance, to assess the effect of 5% RAP alteration on the marginal change in performance between 20%, 25%, and 30%. Then, the results from assessment were used to classify the RAP contents in HMA mixtures as low, moderate, and high by comparing the performance of the mixtures. The HMA specimen’s preparation followed the Marshall mix design procedure with a 12.5 mm nominal maximum aggregate size (NMAS). Rutting and stripping resistance were selected as the primary performance. The wheel tracking (WTT) and indirect tension strength (IDT) tests were done to assess rutting and stripping performance, respectively. The WTT results indicated that a mixture with 30% RAP performed well in rutting resistance, followed by 25% and 20% RAP mixtures. The results of the tensile strength ratio (TSR) from the IDT showed that mixtures with 0% RAP and 20% RAP were susceptible to stripping. On the other hand, mixture with the 25% RAP had good stripping resistance. From the test results, it was observed that RAP contents up to 20 % had similar performance as 0% RAP mixture. Mixtures containing 25% RAP and 30% RAP found better on rutting and stripping resistance. Based on the experiment results, the 5% variation in RAP content affects the performance of the mixtures significantly. The present study concluded that RAP content could be tiered as follows; up to 20 % is low content, above 20% to 30% as moderate, and above 30% is high content.


reclaimed asphalt; marginal change; rutting resistance; moisture damage.

Full Text:



Mroueh, U. M. and Wahlström, M. (2002). By-products and recycled materials in earth construction in Finland-an assessment of applicability, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 35,117-129.

Abd. R, Aminaton. M, and Ahmad .M Morphological and Strength Properties of Tanjung Bin Coal Ash Mixtures for applied in Geotechnical Engineering Work, (International Journal on Advanced science, Engineering, and Information Technology. 7 ,no 2, 2017).

McDaniel, R., Soleymani, H., Anderson, RM., Turner, P & Peterson, R., Recommended use of reclaimed asphalt pavement in the Superpave mix design method, NCHRP web document 30, (Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2000).

AL-Zubaidi, I., and S.I Sarsam, Resistance to deformation under repeated loading of aged and recycled sustainable pavement, (Am.J. Civil Structural Eng.1, 2014). PP 4-39.

Silva HM, Oliveira JR, Jesus CM. Are totally recycled hot mix asphalt a sustainable alternative for road paving? Resource Conservation Recycling 2012).

Al-Qadi I.L., Elseifi, M., and Carpenter, S.H., Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement- A Literature Review, Research Report FHWA, (Illinois Center for Transportation, Urbana, 2007).

Celauro, C., C. Bernado and B. Gabriele, Production of innovative, recycled and high-performance asphalt for road pavements, Resource conservation v-54, issue 6, Palermo (2010), pp 655-662.

Tran NH, Taylor A, Willis R. Effect of rejuvenator on performance properties of HMA mixtures with high RAP and RAS contents. Auburn, AL: National Center for Asphalt Technology; 2012).

Mogawer WS, Bennert T, Daniel JS, Bonaquist R, Austerman A, Booshehrian A. Performance characteristics of plant produced high RAP mixtures. Transportation Pooled Fund Programm 2012;13)

KarlssonR, Isacsson U. Material-related aspects of asphalt recycling-state-of-the-art. Journal of Mater Civil Eng 2006)

Huang, B., Shu, X. and Vukosavljevic, D. Laboratory Investigation of Cracking Resistance of Hot-Mix Asphalt Field Mixtures Containing Screened Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 2010).

Paul, H.R. Evaluation of Recycled Projects for Performance. Proceedings of the Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists, 1996).

Erik Denneman, Melissa Dias, Shannon Malone, Young Choi, Elizabeth Woodall, Robert Urquhart, Maximising the Re-use of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement: Binder Blend Characterization (Austroads Ltd, Sydney, 2013), pp5.

AASHTO M 323 Standard Specification for Superpave Volumetric Mix Design, (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 2007).

Federal Highway Authority (FHWA). Asphalt Pavement Recycling with Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement.

Park T.W., Kim S.U., Park N.W. and Kim K. W, Mixing Method Renovation for Reducing Stiffness of Recycled Asphalt Mixture, (Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Maintenance and Rehabilitation of Pavement, Park city, 2007).

Lei Geng, Y. G, research on high modulus asphalt concrete performance with high content of reclaimed asphalt pavement, (Proc. of the Eighth Intl. Conf. on Maintenance and Rehabilitation of Pavements Singapore, 2016).

Dr Jeffrey Lee, Dr Erik Denneman & Dr Young Choi, Maximising the re-use of reclaimed asphalt pavement: outcomes of year two: RAP mix design (Austroads Ltd, Sydney, 2015).

McDaniel, R, Soleymani, H, Anderson, RM, Turner, P & Peterson, R, Recommended use of reclaimed asphalt pavement in the Superpave mix design method, NCHRP web document 30, (Transportation Research Board, Washington DC, 2000).

McDaniel, R, Shah, A, Huber, GA & Copeland, A, Effects of reclaimed asphalt pavement content and virgin binder grade on properties of plant produced mixtures’, (Taylor & Francis, Virginia, 2012), pp. 161-82.

Arief. S, Latif B , Agus Taufik. M, Modelling Effect of Aggregate Gradation and Bitumen Content on Marshall Properties of Asphalt Concrete, (International Journal on Advanced science, Engineering and Information Technology,Vol. 7 ,no 2, 2017).

Imad Al-Qadi, Qazi,Aurangzeb,Samuel H,Carpenter, William J.pine , James Trapanier, Impact of high RAP content on structural and performance properties of asphalt mixtures ( Illinois Center for Transportation, Urbana, 2012).

Rebbechi J. and Green M., Going green: innovations in recycling asphalt, AAPA Pavements Industry Conference, Surfers Paradise, (Australian Asphalt Pavement Association, Queensland, 2005).



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development