Comparison of Repair Costs for Small and Mid-Sizes Farm Machinery in Malaysian Oil Palm Plantation

Siti Nabilah Samsudin, Darius El Pebrian, Ajeng Jok Wan


Farm machinery has been tremendously used to perform laborious tasks and speed-up the in-field operations in Malaysian oil palm plantation. In line with significant increase in farm machinery usage in Malaysian oil palm plantation, hence, repair costs of farm machinery should be well-managed. Failure to do so may result the plantations profits will be affected.  This study aims to analyze and compare the current data of repair costs for small and mid-sizes farm machinery that are commonly used in Malaysian oil palm plantation.  Besides, this study also aims to update and adapt the values of repair factors for cumulative repair and maintenance (Crm) costs model of farm machinery in Malaysian oil palm plantation. The relevant data were collected through a survey that was carried out at several oil palm plantations in Melaka and Negeri Sembilan states of Malaysia.  The findings indicated the common sizes of farm machinery used Malaysian oil palm plantation were in range of small-size (28HP) to mid-size (75HP). It was found that annual average repair costs of mid-size farm machinery was 60.08% higher than the small-size one. Meanwhile, mean ages of mid-size farm machinery was also 80.7 % longer than the small-size one. The values of repairs factors 1 (RF1) and repairs factor 2 (RF2) for cumulative repair and maintenance costs model (Crm) of farm machinery in Malaysian oil palm plantation were 1.4061 and 1.6588, respectively.  Conclusively, the findings of study can give a valuable contribution to the oil palm plantations management in developing their strategic planning concerning to the allocation of overall costs of farm machinery.


repair costs; mechanization; oil palm plantation; farm machinery; Malaysia

Full Text:



MPOB. “Economic and Industrial Development Division: Malaysia total area of oil palm planted in 2015”. Available at: Accessed on December 2016.

FAOSTAT, "Machinery: Malaysia’s import quantity in year 2005-2009,". [Online]. Available: Accessed: 2016.

J.C. Siemens, W, Bowers, W, and R.G. Holmes, R. G. Machinery Management:. 6th ed.: Deere & Co. Moline, IL, USA. 2008, pp. 8.1-8.10.

D. Hunt and D. Wilson, Farm Power and Machinery Management. Waveland Press, Inc. Illinois, USA.m 2011. Pp.71-86

F.M Inns, Operational aspects of tractor use in developing countries—A case for the small tractor, “The Agricultural Engineer (Summer), pp.52-54, 1978.

U. Paman, S. Bahri and Asrol, “Custom hiring services of power thresher for small-farm rice threshing in Kampar Regency, Indonesia”, “International Journal of Advance Science Engineering Information Technology, vol.4 no. 4, pp.70-73, 2014.

U. Paman, S. Bahri and L. Liana, “Distribution and use patterns of small-scale rice mills in Kampar Regency, Riau Province, Indonesia” , “International Journal of Advance Science Engineering Information Technology, 2, 2016.

A. Calcante, L. Fontanini, and F. Mazzetto, "Repair and maintenance costs of 4wd tractors in Northern Italy," Transactions of the ASABE, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 355–362, 2013.

W. Bowers and D. R. Hunt, "Application of mathematical formulas to repair cost data," Transactions of the ASAE, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 0806–0809, 1970.

S. M. Ward, P. B. McNulty, and M. B. Cunney, "Repair cost of 2 and 4 WD tractors," Transactions of the ASABE, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 1074–1076, 1985.

S. A. Al-Suhaibani and M. F. Wahby, "Tractor repair and maintenance in Saudi Arabia," Applied Engineering in Agriculture, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 591–596, 1999.

ASABE, "Agricultural machinery management," ASABE Standards, vol. D496.3, pp. 1–6, 2011.

M. Lips, "Repair and maintenance costs for nine agricultural machine types," Transactions of the ASABE, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 1299–1370, 2013.

A. Calcante, L. Fontanini, and F. Mazzetto, "Coefficients of repair and maintenance costs of self-propelled combine harvesters in Italy," Agricultural Engineering International, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 141–147, 2013.

M. Lips, and F. Burose, “Repair and maintenance costs for agricultural machines, “ International Journal of Agricultural Management, vol. 1, no.3, pp 40-46, 2012.

ASABE, "Agricultural Management Machinery Data," ASABE Standard, vol. D497.7, pp. 1–8, 2011.

G. M. Khoub bakht, H. Ahmadi, A. Akram, and M. Karimi, "Repair and maintenance cost models for mf285 tractor: a case study in central region of Iran," American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Science, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 76–80, 2008.

J. Pawlak, G. Pellizzi, and M. Fiala, "Development of agricultural mechanization to ensure a long-term world food supply," Proc. XII Meeting Club of Bologna, pp. 24–47, 2001.

D.E., Pebrian, Yahya, A and Siang, T.C, “Workers’ workload and productivity in oil palm cultivation in Malaysia,” Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health vol 20, no. 4: 235-253,2014.

D. E. Pebrian, A. Yahya, N. M. Nawi, T. C. Siang, and S. M. B. Gevao, "Monitoring and auditing human energy input for oil palm and rice production in Malaysia," The Phillipine Agricultural Scientist, vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 282–289, 2011.

L.N. Langemeier, and R.K. Taylor. A Look at Machinery Costs. Manhattan, KS: Kansas State University. Farm Management Guide MF-842. 1998.

R.Veloo, P. Selamat and M.R. Shahruddin, “Rising cost of plantation business, “The Planter, vol.89, no.1050, pp.661-671, 2013.

R. Veloo, R and M. F Hitam, Plantation labour: Need for management strategy. The Planter, vol. 88, no. 1031: 125-137, 2012.



Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development