Preparation and Characterization of Type 3 Resistant Starch from Cilacap Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg) Starch
The Cilacap breadfruit grown in Indonesia, possesses superior properties, although the application as a carbohydrate source is not very popular compared to other resources, including banana, corn, and cassava. Furthermore, they contain relatively high fiber content, hence the possibility of further development into beneficial resistant starch. This study aims to investigate the Cilacap breadfruit starch, and the type 3 resistant starch (RS3) produced at high temperatures, using a 3 cycle Autoclaving-Cooling method with strong acid hydrolysis. The autoclave was set at 100°C, 121°C, and 140°C, respectively, while the storage temperature was 4°C for 24 h and 48 h, followed by hydrolysis with 0.1 M HCl at 40°C for 24 h, and then neutralization using 1 M NaOH, at 4°C for 24 h. Therefore, both samples were evaluated based on chemical, functional, and physical characteristics. The results showed chemical changes in the Cilacap breadfruit starch converted to the resistant starch under similar autoclave treatment (100, 121, and 140°C). However, the extended cold storage (48 h) prompted a significant decline (p≤0.05) in carbohydrate, and starch levels, alongside increased antioxidant activity, insoluble fiber, and total dietary fiber content, compared to samples stored for 24-h. Furthermore, autoclaving at 140°C and cooling at 4°C for 48 h yielded products with the highest antioxidant activity (9.11%). Also, higher temperatures (121°C and 140°C), and subsequent storage at 4°C for 24, and 48 h causes an increase in the WAI and OHC values of native starch and modified the structure of the granule. The native starch has a type B crystal pattern.
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