[RETRACTED] An Investigation of the Optimization of Technological Parameters When Machining Straight Toothed Bevel Gears on 3-Axis CNC Milling Machine

Minh Quang Chau, Le Hung Duong, Minh Nhat Nguyen, Xuan Phuong Nguyen, Thi Minh Hao Dong



Available online: 31 December 2020

This article has been retracted by International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology Editorial team, following clear correspondence and confirmation with authors.

The paper is retracted from 29 November 2021.


With the advantage of reducing the damage of bending stress up to 10%, the straight-toothed bevel gears (STBG) with a shoulder-bearing are being used in many industries automobiles, trains, mining, space, machinery technology and aviation equipment. With the working characteristics of straight-tooth bevel gear, the manufacturing quality assessments are usually conducted through micro-dimensional values, surface gloss, and internal surfaces' contact ability in the transmission. Recently, research and application of gear machining methods on 3-axis CNC milling machines are gradually becoming more popular. Therefore, the study of the affection of technology parameters on the quality of shaping the STBG surface by evaluating the output factors (surface undulation, micro-geometry parameters and trace contact size) in the finishing step is very urgent. First of all, the paper goes into detail in building design solutions to create input data for the machining of STBG on CNC milling machines by profile attachment method. Moreover, the study also built the process of evaluating the machining quality of the STBG utilizing microgeometry and the contact size. The paper focuses on developing experimental equations that show the relationship between technological parameters (S, F, Z) and roughness (Ra), deviation of tooth profile shape (ff), and trace contact size (bc, hc) of the Z11-16 m8 STBG transmission. From that, the optimal technology solution was identified to ensure the contact accuracy when processing the Z16-11 m8 STBG transmission on a 3-axis CNC milling machine.


straight bevel gear; 3-axis CNC milling machines; relationship equations; technological parameters; optimized model.

Full Text:



M. D. Eastwood and K. R. Haapala, “A unit process model based methodology to assist product sustainability assessment during design for manufacturing,” J. Clean. Prod., 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.08.105.

H. Ding, J. Tang, J. Zhong, G. Wan, and Z. Zhou, “Simulation and optimization of computer numerical control-milling model for machining a spiral bevel gear with new tooth flank,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part B J. Eng. Manuf., 2016, doi: 10.1177/0954405416640171.

J. Teixeira Alves, J. P. de Vaujany, and M. Guingand, “Comparison of Simulations and Experiments of Loaded Spiral Bevel Gears Behavior,” 2015, doi: 10.1115/detc2015-47421.

C. Özel and Y. Ortaç, “A study on the cutting errors of the tooth profiles of the cycloidal gears manufactured in CNC milling machine,” Int. J. Mater. Prod. Technol., 2016, doi: 10.1504/IJMPT.2016.076373.

M. Q. Chau, “Modeling 3D surface milling process using a ball-end milling cutter,” J. Mech. Eng. Res. Dev., 2020.

R. García-García and M. A. González-Palacios, “Method for the geometric modeling and rapid prototyping of involute bevel gears,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 2018, doi: 10.1007/s00170-018-2246-9.

M. Kostrzewski and R. Melnik, “Numerical Dynamics Study of a Rail Vehicle with Differential Gears,” 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2017.06.076.

M. Q. Chau, “An overview study on the laser technology and applications in the mechanical and machine manufacturing industry,” J. Mech. Eng. Res. Dev., 2019, doi: 10.26480/jmerd.05.2019.16.20.

P. Bo, H. González, A. Calleja, L. N. L. de Lacalle, and M. Bartoň, “5-axis double-flank CNC machining of spiral bevel gears via custom-shaped milling tools — Part I: Modeling and simulation,” Precis. Eng., 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.precisioneng.2019.11.015.

S. Peng, H. Ding, and J. Tang, “Corrected Calculation of Machine Settings for Spiral Bevel and Gears Using an Improved 6σ Method,” Hsi-An Chiao Tung Ta Hsueh/Journal Xi’an Jiaotong Univ., 2019, doi: 10.7652/xjtuxb201906006.

K. Kawasaki and K. Shinma, “Accuracy measurement and evaluation of straight bevel gear manufactured by end mill using CNC milling machine,” J. Mech. Des. Trans. ASME, 2009, doi: 10.1115/1.2988480.

C. Gosselin and J. Wang, “5 Axis CNC Manufacturing of EDM Bevel Gear Electrodes,” Proc. JSME Int. Conf. motion power Transm., 2017, doi: 10.1299/jsmeimpt.2017.02-05.

C. Gosselin, “Multi axis CnC manufacturing of straight and spiral bevel gears,” in Mechanisms and Machine Science, 2018.

M. Q. Chau and D. T. Nguyen, “A study on factors affecting the welding flux in the case of wire welding,” Test Eng. Manag., 2020.

V. Vullo, “Straight Bevel Gears,” 2020.

Y. Zhou, Z. C. Chen, and J. Tang, “A New Method of Designing the Tooth Surfaces of Spiral Bevel Gears with Ruled Surface for Their Accurate Five-Axis Flank Milling,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. Trans. ASME, 2017, doi: 10.1115/1.4035079.

H. A. Zschippang, S. Weikert, K. A. Küçük, and K. Wegener, “Face-gear drive: Geometry generation and tooth contact analysis,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.mechmachtheory.2019.103576.

A. Acinapura, G. Fragomeni, P. F. Greco, D. Mundo, G. Carbone, and G. Danieli, “Design and prototyping of miniaturized straight bevel gears for biomedical applications,” Machines, 2019, doi: 10.3390/machines7020038.

D. He, H. Ding, and J. Tang, “A new analytical identification approach to the tooth contact points considering misalignments for spiral bevel or hypoid gears,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.mechmachtheory.2017.12.003.

J. R. Davis, Gear Materials , Properties , and Manufacture. 2005.

D. N. Nguyen, A. T. Hoang, X. D. Pham, M. T. Sai, M. Q. Chau, and V. V. Pham, “Effect of sn component on properties and microstructure CU-NI-SN alloys,” J. Teknol., 2018, doi: 10.11113/jt.v80.11867.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18517/ijaseit.10.6.13055


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development