Measuring the Impact of Environmental Sustainability on Tuberculosis Rates Using the Two-Stage Least Squares Method in the Polled Model
Iraq has witnessed several changes that directly and negatively affected the nature of society and the environment, such as an increase in the population over the past two decades. Hence, an increase in demand for food, energy, housing, and water means an increase in solid and liquid waste as a result of weak environmental awareness. Tuberculosis is one of the infectious diseases, and Iraq is witnessing a noticeable increase in the rate of infections at the governorates level. The explanatory variables that were chosen are among the variables of the sustainable environment adopted by the Ministry of health in Iraq. Therefore, it was essential to know their effect on the phenomenon under study (number of tuberculosis cases). The results of estimating the model parameters using the two-stage least squares method and the transformations method show that the explanatory variables significantly affect the dependent variable, as explained above. This study focused on the effect of some sustainable environment variables (the population, the number of health institutions, the proportion of the population that uses clean drinking water, and the percentage of the population with access to sanitation) on tuberculosis rates based on the polled model at the governorates level for the period (2013–2017). The two-stage least squares method was used to estimate model parameters. The results showed that increasing environmental awareness represented by sustainable environment variables positively impacts lower rates of tuberculosis at the governorates level.
R. A. Johnson and D. W. Wichern, Applied multivariate statistical analysis, vol. 5, no. 8. Prentice hall Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2002.
H. K. Sharaf, M. R. Ishak, S. M. Sapuan, and N. Yidris, “Conceptual design of the cross-arm for the application in the transmission towers by using TRIZ–morphological chart–ANP methods,” J. Mater. Res. Technol., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 9182–9188, Jul. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.jmrt.2020.05.129.
A. Dubrov, “Applied Multivariate Data Analysis,” Stat. Moscow, 1992.
M. H. Forouzanfar et al., “Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015,” Lancet, vol. 388, no. 10053, pp. 1659–1724, Oct. 2016, doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31679-8.
R. M. A. Ujjan, Z. Pervez, K. Dahal, A. K. Bashir, R. Mumtaz, and J. González, “Towards sFlow and adaptive polling sampling for deep learning based DDoS detection in SDN,” Futur. Gener. Comput. Syst., vol. 111, pp. 763–779, Oct. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.future.2019.10.015.
C. Prosser and J. Mellon, “The Twilight of the Polls? A Review of Trends in Polling Accuracy and the Causes of Polling Misses,” Gov. Oppos., vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 757–790, Oct. 2018, doi: 10.1017/gov.2018.7.
B. P. Scicluna et al., “Classification of patients with sepsis according to blood genomic endotype: a prospective cohort study,” Lancet Respir. Med., vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 816–826, Oct. 2017, doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(17)30294-1.
B. Pölling, W. Sroka, and M. Mergenthaler, “Success of urban farming’s city-adjustments and business models—Findings from a survey among farmers in Ruhr Metropolis, Germany,” Land use policy, vol. 69, pp. 372–385, Dec. 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.landusepol.2017.09.034.
L. Koufariotis et al., “Sequencing the mosaic genome of Brahman cattle identifies historic and recent introgression including polled,” Sci. Rep., vol. 8, no. 1, p. 17761, Dec. 2018, doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-35698-5.
J. M. Kieffer et al., “Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the EORTC chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy questionnaire (QLQ-CIPN20),” Qual. Life Res., vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 2999–3010, Nov. 2017, doi: 10.1007/s11136-017-1626-1.
Pearce, A., Tomalin, B., Kaambwa, B., Horevoorts, N., Duijts, S., Mols, F., ... & Koczwara, B. (2019). Financial toxicity is more than costs of care: the relationship between employment and financial toxicity in long-term cancer survivors. Journal of Cancer Survivorship, 13(1), 10-20.
Sharaf, H. K., Ishak, M. R., Sapuan, S. M., Yidris, N., & Fattahi, A. (2020). Experimental and numerical investigation of the mechanical behavior of full-scale wooden cross arm in the transmission towers in terms of load-deflection test. Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 9(4), 7937-7946.
Thompson, N. M., Widmar, N. O., Schutz, M. M., Cole, J. B., & Wolf, C. A. (2017). Economic considerations of breeding for polled dairy cows versus dehorning in the United States. Journal of dairy science, 100(6), 4941-4952.
L. Lee and J. Yu, “Identification of Spatial Durbin Panel Models,” J. Appl. Econom., vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 133–162, Jan. 2016, doi: 10.1002/jae.2450.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development