Measuring the Impact of Environmental Sustainability on Tuberculosis Rates Using the Two-Stage Least Squares Method in the Polled Model

Suhad Ali Shaheed Al-Temimi, Rawaa Salh Al-Saffar


Iraq has witnessed several changes that directly and negatively affected the nature of society and the environment, such as an increase in the population over the past two decades. Hence, an increase in demand for food, energy, housing, and water means an increase in solid and liquid waste as a result of weak environmental awareness. Tuberculosis is one of the infectious diseases, and Iraq is witnessing a noticeable increase in the rate of infections at the governorates level. The explanatory variables that were chosen are among the variables of the sustainable environment adopted by the Ministry of health in Iraq. Therefore, it was essential to know their effect on the phenomenon under study (number of tuberculosis cases). The results of estimating the model parameters using the two-stage least squares method and the transformations method show that the explanatory variables significantly affect the dependent variable, as explained above. This study focused on the effect of some sustainable environment variables (the population, the number of health institutions, the proportion of the population that uses clean drinking water, and the percentage of the population with access to sanitation) on tuberculosis rates based on the polled model at the governorates level for the period (2013–2017). The two-stage least squares method was used to estimate model parameters. The results showed that increasing environmental awareness represented by sustainable environment variables positively impacts lower rates of tuberculosis at the governorates level.


environmental sustainability; tuberculosis incidence rate; the two-stage least squares method; polled model.

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