A Fast AES Hardware Security Module for Internet of Things Applications

Minyoung Lee, HyunSeo Lim, Yoojeong Yang, Sunhee Kim


As the Internet of Things is used in various fields, Internet of Things security has become important. Since most Internet of Things devices is implemented as embedded systems, they provide a software-implemented encryption algorithm. Most embedded systems use relatively low-performance CPUs and the software processes data serially, making it difficult to process complex security algorithms in real-time. Therefore, it is necessary to have a stable encryption module with less impact on system performance. In this paper, we designed an AES hardware security module. Because it is implemented with dedicated hardware, it can process a strong encryption algorithm in real time without affecting the performance of the system. The proposed AES hardware module is designed using Verilog-HDL, tested in ModelSim and implemented in Altera FPGA CycloneⅣ. The designed AES hardware adopts parallel processing technique and pipeline structure considering the computational complexity and processing order of the algorithm. As a result, it is faster than AES modules implemented in software. In addition, its latency was reduced to about 280 ns, which is about 16 % of the latency of the previous AES hardware module. Not only did the performance improve, but the number of logic elements and registers also decreased to 83.6% and 92.8%, respectively. The proposed AES hardware module is verified by applying it to a door lock system and is expected to be applied to various Internet of Things devices.


AES; Encryption; Internet of Things; security

Full Text:



M. Chui, M. Löffler, and R. Roberts. "The internet of things," McKinsey Quarterly, March 2010.

(2017) IEEE Courses. Computing. [Online]. What Is the Internet of Things: An Introduction. Available: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/courses/ details/EDP486

(2017) IEEE Courses. [Online]. Computing. Exploring IoT Industry Applications: The Evolution of Internet of Things for Healthcare. Available: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/courses/details/EDP483

D. Yang, and H. Ren, “The research on the technology of Internet of Things and embedded system,” in 2017 8th IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering and Service Science (ICSESS) pp. 395-398. Nov. 1999.

M. Hossain, and S.M. RiazulIslam, F. Ali, K.S. Kwak, and R. Hasan, “An Internet of Things-based health prescription assistant and its security system design,” Future Generation Computer Systems, vol. 20, pp. 422-439, May. 2018.

C. Z. E. Li, and Z. W. Deng, “The Embedded Modules Solution of Household Internet of Things System and The Future Development,” Procedia Computer Science, vol. 166, pp350-356, 2020.

M. Ahmad, and K. K. Salahb, “IoT security: Review, blockchain solutions, and open challenges,” Future Generation Computer Systems, vol. 82, pp395-411, May. 2018.

N. Moustafa, B. Turnbull, and K. K. R. Choo, “An Ensemble Intrusion Detection Technique Based on Proposed Statistical Flow Features for Protecting Network Traffic of Internet of Things,” IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 6, no. 3, pp 4815-4830, June. 2019.

E. Bertino, and N. Islam, “Botnets and Internet of Things Security,” Computer, vol. 50, no.2, pp 76-79, Feb. 2017.

D.S. Kim. (2017) Special Economy. [Online]. Available: http://www. speconomy.com/news/articleView.html?idxno=86731

CISOMAG. (2019) CISO MAG. [Online]. Available: cisomag.com /hackers-take-over-smart-home/

P. Marius, C. TOMA, C. Boja, and Z. Alin, “Privacy and Security in Connected Vehicles Ecosystems,” Informatica Economica, vol. 21, no.4, pp. 29-40, 2017.

C. Wootton, “Samsung ARTIK Reference: The Definitive Developers Guide,” Apress, 2016.

H. Naeem, F. Ullah, M. R. Naeem, S. Khalid, D. Vasan, S. Jabbar, and S. Saeed, “Malware detection in industrial internet of things based on hybrid image visualization and deep learning model,” Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 105, pp. 102154, Aug. 2020.

Y. H. Liu, S. Zhang, “Information security and storage of Internet of Things based on block chains,” Future Generation Computer Systems, vol 106, pp 296-303, May 2020.

G. D. L. T. Parra, P. Rad, K. K. R. Choo, and N. Beebe, “Detecting Internet of Things attacks using distributed deep learning,” Journal of Network and Computer Applications, vol. 163, pp 102662, Aug. 2020.

M. Rouse. (2018) IoT security(internet of things security), the IoT Agenda website. [Online]. Available: https://internetofthingsagen da.techtarget.com/definition/IoT-security-Internet-of-Things-security.

M. Hossain, M. Fotouhi, and R. Hasan, “Towards an analysis of security issues, challenges, and open problems in the internet of things,” in IEEE 11th World Congress on Services, 2015.

S. K. Rao, and D. Mahto, and D. A. Khan, “A Survey on Advanced Encryption Standard,” International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), vol. 6, no. 1, Jan. 2017.

J. Daemen and V. Rijmen, “AES proposal: Rijndael,” 1999.

M. F. Mushtaq, S. Jamel, A. H. Disina, Z. A. Pindar, N. S. A. Shakir, and M. M. Deris, “A Survey on the Cryptographic Encryption Algorithms,” International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications(IJACSA), vol. 8, no. 11, pp 333-344, 2017.

(2020) The Wikipedia website. [Online]. Available: https://en.wikiped ia.org/wiki/Data_Encryption_Standard

N. ALEISA, “A Comparison of the 3DES and AES Encryption Standards,” International Journal of Security and Its Applications, vol.8, no. 7, pp. 241-246, 2015.

M. Bahnasawi, A., K. Ibrahim, A. Mohamed, M. Khalifa, A. Moustafa, K.Abelmonim, Y. ismail, and H. Mostafa, “ASIC-Oriented Comparative Review of Hardware Security Algorithms for the Internet of Things Applications,” in IEEE International Conference on Microelectronics (ICM 2016), pp. 285-288, 2016.

R. Nivedhaa, and J.Jean Justus, “A Secure Erasure Cloud Storage System Using Advanced Encryption Standard Algorithm and Proxy Re-Encryption,” in 2018 International Conference on Communication and Signal Processing (ICCSP), 2018.

M. E. Hameed, M. M. Ibrahim, and N. A. Manap, “Review on Improvement of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Algorithm based on Time Execution, Differential Cryptanalysis and Level of Security,” Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering (JTEC), vol. 10, no. 1., pp. 139-145, 2018.

S. P. Singh, and R. Maini. "Comparison of data encryption algorithms." International Journal of Computer Science and Communication, vol.2, no. 1, pp. 125-127, 2011.

D. Budiyanto, and P. A. W Putro, “Comparison of Implementation Tiny Encryption Algorithm (TEA) and Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Algorithm on Android Based Open Source Cryptomator Library,” in 2018 International Seminar on Research of Information Technology and Intelligent Systems (ISRITI), 2018.

D. Nurmalasari, E. Mulyana, and M. Irfan, “Security Implementation of the Internet of Things Using the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Algorithm,” in 2019 IEEE 5th International Conference on Wireless and Telematics (ICWT), 2019.

R. Riyaldhi, Rojali, and A. Kurniawan, “Improvement of Advanced Encryption Standard Algorithm With Shift Row and S.Box Modification Mapping in Mix Column,” Procedia Computer Science, vol. 116, pp. 401-407, 2017.

D. J. Bernstein and P. Schwabe, “New AES software speed records,” in International Conference on Cryptology in India, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2008.

H. K. Park and K. Lee, “A Design of an AES-based Security Chip for IoT Applications using Verilog HDL,” The Transactions of the Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers, no. 1, pp. 9-14, 2018.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18517/ijaseit.10.4.12760


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development