Physicochemical Properties of Xylitol Crystals from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches Hydrolysate

Efri Mardawati, Nurul Annazhifah, Nandi Sukri, - Triyuliana, Edy Suryadi, Budi Mandra Harahap


Xylitol, a low-calorie sugar made up of five carbon atoms, had the valuable characteristics suitably applied for pharmaceutical and food industries. This sugar can be produced from oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) through hydrolysis and followed by fermentation. The xylitol in the fermentation broth requires the downstream process to obtain the final product with high purity and yield. Among a series of xylitol downstream process, crystallization becomes a critical step since this process determines the properties of final products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of evaporation temperature (55°C and 70°C) and seeding addition (0%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1 %) in the crystallization step on the physicochemical properties of xylitol crystals obtained from the OPEFB hydrolysate. The main evaluation criteria were crystal contents, purity, melting point, water content, hygroscopicity, solubility, caloric content, and crystal xylitol yield. The result showed that the crystal form obtained was relatively sticky and had lower purity than commercial ones because the concentration of xylitol solution increased after evaporation. The differences of physicochemical properties of the crystals such as the purity, porosity, yield and crystal form were influenced by evaporation temperature. The crystals formed by 70°C evaporation temperature produced the crystals with higher caloric value and purity, but it had lower hygroscopicity and moisture content than crystals formed by 55°C. However, the percentage of seeding gave an insignificant impact on xylitol crystal properties.


crystallization; oil palm empty fruit bunches; seeding; temperature; xylitol.

Full Text:



M. S. Islam. “Effects of xylitol as a sugar substitute on diabetes-related parameters in nondiabetic rats,” Journal of Medical Food, vol. 14, pp. 505-511, 2011

F. C. Sampaio, F. M. L. Passos, F. J. V. Passos, D. De Faveri, P. Perego, and A. Converti. “Xylitol crystallization from culture media fermented by yeasts,” Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, vol. 45, pp. 1041–1046, Dec. 2006.

D. Dasgupta, S. Bandhu, D. K. Adhikari, and D. Ghosh.”Challenges and prospects of xylitol production with whole cell bio-catalysis: a review,” Microbiology Research, vol. 197, pp. 9-21, 2017

S. Ur-rehman, Z. Mushtaq, T. Zahoor, A. Jamil, and M. A. Murtaza, “Xylitol: A review on bioproduction, application, health benefits, and related safety issues,” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, vol. 55, pp. 1514-1528, Apr. 2015.

Z. Li, X. Guo, X. Feng, and C. Li “An environment friendly and efficient process for xylitol bioconversion from enzymatic corncob hydrolysate by adapted Candida tropicalis,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 263, pp. 249-256, 2015

B. M. Harahap and M. T. A. P. Kresnowati. “Moderate Pretreatment of oil palm empty fruit bunches for optimal production of xylitol via enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation,” Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, vol. 8, pp. 255-263, Jun. 2018.

E. Mardawati, M. T. A. P. Kresnowati, R. Purwadi, Y. Bindar, and T. Setiadi, “Fungal Production of Xylanase from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch via Solid State Fermentation,” International Journal on Advance Science Engineering and Information Technology, vol. 8, pp. 2539-2546, 2018.

E. Mardawati, R. Andoyo, K. A. Syukra, M. T. A. P. Kresnowati, and Y. Bindar, “Production of xylitol from corn cob hydrolyzate through acid and enzymatic hydrolysis by yeast,” IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, vol. 141, pp. 1-11, 2017.

E. Mardawati, N. Maharani, D. W. Wira, B. M. Harahap, T. Yuliana, E. Sukarminah, “Xylitol production from oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) via simultaneous enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation,” Journal of Inductrial and Information Technology in Agriculture, vol. 2, pp. 29-36, 2018.

J. C. Parajo, H. Dominguez, and J. Dominguez. “Biotechnological production of xylitol. Part 1: Interest of xylitol and fundamentals of its biosynthesis,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 65, pp. 191-201, Sep. 1998

B. M. Harahap, E. Mardawati, and D. Nurliasari, “A comprehensive review: Integrated microbial xylitol, bioethanol, and cellulase production from oil palm empty fruit bunches,” Jurnal Industri Pertanian, vol. 2, pp. 142-157, 2020

E. Mardawati, A. Werner, T. Bley, M. T. A. P. Kresnowati, T. Setiadi, “The enzymatic hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunches to xylose,” Journal of the Japan Institute of Energy, vol. 93, pp. 973-978, 2014.

E. Mardawati, D. W. Wira, M. T. A. P. Kresnowati, R. Purwadi, T. Setiadi, “Microbial production of xylitol from oil palm empty fruit bunches hydrolyzate: The effect of glucose concentration,” Journal of the Japan Institute of Energy, vol. 94, pp. 769-774, 2015.

E. A. Martinez, J. B. A. e Silva, M. Giulietti, and A. I. N. Solenzal, “Downstream process for xylitol produced from fermented hydrolysate,” Enzyme and Microbial Technology, vol. 40, 1193-1198, 2007

R. P. Affleck, “Recovery of xylitol from fermentation of model hemicellulose hydrolyzate using membrane technology,” M. Sc. Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, Dec. 2000.

P. Jandera and J. Churacek, “Ion-exchange chromatography of aldehydes, ketones, ethers, alcohols, polyols, and saccharides,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 98, pp. 55-104, Mar. 1974.

P. V. Gurgel, I. M. Mancilha, R. P. Pecanha, and J. F. M. Siqueira, “Xylitol recovery from fermented sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzate,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 52, pp. 219-223, 1995

K. A. Faneer, R. Rohani, and A. W. Mohammad, “Influence of pluronic addition on polyethersulfone membrane for xylitol recovery from biomass fermentation solution,” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 171, pp. 995-1005, 2018

M. T. A. P. Kresnowati, D. Regina, C. Bella, A. K. Wardani, I. G. Wenten, “Combined ultrafiltration and electrodeionization techniques for microbial xylitol purification,” Food and Bioproducts Processing, vol. 114, pp. 245-252, 2019

K. A. Faneer, R. Rohani, and A. W. Mohammad, “Polyethersulfone Nanofiltration Membrane Incorporated with Silicon Dioxide Prepared by Phase Inversion Method for Xylitol Purification,” Polymers and Polymer Composites, vol. 24, pp. 803-808, 2016

J. Wei, W. Yuan, T. Wang, and L. Wang, “Purification and crystallization of xylitol from fermentation broth of corncob hydrolyzate,” Frontiers of Chemical Engineering in China, vol. 4, pp. 57-64, 2010

S. Misra, P. Gupta, S. Raghuwanshi, K. Dutt, R. K. Saxena, “Comparative study on different strategies involved for xylitol purification from culture media fermented by Candida tropicalis,” Separation and Purification Technology, vol. 78, pp. 266-273, Apr 2011.

J. S. L. How and C. V. Morr, “Removal of phenolic compounds from soy protein extracts using activated carbon,” Food Science, vol. 47, pp. 933-940, May 1982

P. Fatehi, L. Catalan, G. Cave, “Simulation analysis of producing xylitol from hemicelluloses of pre-hyrdolysis liquor,” Chemical Engineering Research and Design, vol. 92, pp. 1563-1570, Aug. 2014.

E. A. Martinez, E. V. Canettieri, J. A. C. Bispo, M. Giulietti, J. B. A. e Silva, and A. Converti, “Strategies for xylitol purification and crystallization: A review,” Separation Science and Technology, vol. 50, pp. 2087-2098, 2015

B. Rivas, P. Torre, J. M. Dominguez, A. Converti, and J. C. Parajo, “Purification of xylitol obtained by fermentation of corncob hydrolyzates,” Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 54, pp. 4430-4435, Jun. 2006.

E. Mardawati, A. Trirakhmadi, M. T. A. P. Kresnowati, and T. Setiadi, “Kinetic study on fermentation of xylose for the xylitol production,” Journal of Industrial and Information Technology in Agriculture, vol. 1, pp. 1-8, 2017.

A. Chesson, “Effects of sodium hydroxide on cereal straws in relation to the enhanced degradation of structural polysaccharides by rumen microorganisms,” The Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 32, pp. 745-758, Aug. 1981.

S. H. A. Rahman, J. P. Choudhury, and A. L. Ahmad, “Production of xylose from oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber using sulfuric acid,” Biochemical Engineering Journal, vol 30, pp. 97-103, May 2006.

A. Nobre, L. C. Duarte, J. C. Roseiro, F. M. Girio, “A physiological and enzymatic study of Debaryomyces hansenii growth on xylose and oxygen-limited chemostats,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 59, pp. 509-516, Jun. 2002.

A. Sluiter, B. Hames, R. Ruiz, C. Scarlata, J. Sluiter, and D. Templeton, “Determination of sugars, by-products, and degradation products in liquid fraction process samples,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Jan. 2008.

(2017) Determination of melting point. [online]. Available: http://

L. Hyvonen, P. Koivistoinen, F. Voirol, “Food technology evaluation of xylitol,” Advances in food research, vol. 28, pp. 373-403, 1982

(2017) JECFA Standards. Xylitol. [online]. Available:

A. Seppälä, A. Meriläinen, L. Wikström, and P. Kauranen, “The effect of additives on the speed of the crystallization front of xylitol with various degrees of supercooling,” Experimental Thermal and Fluid, vol. 34, pp. 523-527, 2010

E. C. van der Pol, R. R. Bakker, P. Baets, and G. Eggink, “By-products resulting from lignocellulose pretreatment and their inhibitory effect on fermentation for (bio)chemicals and fuels,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 98, pp. 9579-9593, 2014

E. Mardawati, H. Herliansah, A. Matheus, I. Badruzaman, D. W. Wira, I. I. Hanidah, R. Andoyo, I. S. Setiasih, E. Suryadi, E. Sukarinah, M. Djali, T. Rialita, and Y. Cahyana, “Acid hydrolysis optimization of corn cob as raw material for xylitol production,” Journal of Advanced Research in Material Science, vol. 51, pp. 1-10, 2018

M. A. Adam, A. Sulaiman, A. A. Baharuddin, M. N. N. Mokhtar, K. Subbian, M. Tabatabaei, “Characterization of delignified oil palm decanter cake (OPDC) for polymer composite development,” International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, vol. 9, pp. 384-389, 2019

B. M. Harahap, A. I. Dewantoro, M. R. Maulid, E. Mardawati, V. P. Yarlina, “Autoclave-assisted weak acid pretreatment of oil palm empty fruit bunches for fermentable sugar production,” IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, vol. 443, pp. 1-12, 2020.

B. M. Harahap, M. R. Maulid, A. I. Dewantoro, E. Mardawati, and S. Huda, “Moderate pretreatment strategies for improvement of reducing sugar production from oil palm empty fruit bunches,” IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, vol. 443, pp. 1-10, 2020.

M. J. Taherzadeh and K. Karimi, “Acid-based hydrolysis processes for ethanol from lignocellulosic materials: A review,” BioResource, vol. 1, pp. 472-499.

S. I. Mussatto, J. C. Santos, I. C. Roberto, “Effect of pH and activated charcoal adsorption on hemicellulose hydrolysate detoxification for xylitol production,” Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, vol. 79, pp. 590-596, 2004.

J. C. López-Linares, I. Romero, C. Cara, E. Castro, and S. I. Mussatto, “Xylitol production by Debaryomyces hansenii and Candida guilliermondii from rapeseed straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 247, pp. 736-743.

GEA Niro Research Laboratory, “A 14a- Hygroscopicity,” pp. 14-16, 2005.

L. Canilha, W. Carvalho, M. Giulietti, M. Giulietti, M. D. G. A. Felipe, J. B. A. E. Silva, “Clarification of a wheat straw-derived medium with ion-exchange resins for xylitol crystallization,” Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, vol. 83, pp. 715-721, May 2008.

D. De Faveri, P. Perego, A. Converti, M. Del Borghi, “Xylitol recovery by crystallization from synthetic solutions and fermented hemicellulose hydrolyzates,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 90, pp. 291-298, Dec. 2002.

D. De Faveri, P. Torre, P. Perego, and A. Converti, “Optimization of xylitol recovery by crystallization from synthetic solutions using response surface methodology,” Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 6, pp. 407-412, 2004



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development