Effects of Organic Materials and Rainfall Intensity on the Productivity of Oil Palm Grown under Sandy Soil Condition
Oil palm plantations in Indonesia are cultivated on various types of land, ranging from very suitable to unsuitable types. This cultivation method is increasingly vulnerable to drought caused by climate change. Climate change due to global warming negatively affects the management of oil palm plantations in the long term. The upper-temperature limit for efficient photosynthesis in oil palm leaves is >38 °C. The increase in temperature (2°C above the optimum) and rainfall by 10% is projected to cause a yield decline of up to 30%. The water shortage is also a major limiting factor for palm oil production. Such vulnerability is predicted to worsen, and thus its negative effects should be explored. The purpose of this study is to reveal the role of organic matter applied as empty bunches (EFB) and the management of Nephrolepis bisserata vegetation in reducing the adverse effects of rainfall on palm oil production on sandy soils. The survey method and observations were carried out for over 3 years on plants aged 14–16 years on blocks. Empty fruit bunches (EFB) of 40 tons/ha/year was applied to each block, and Nephrolepis biserrata was used as ground cover which planted in path. The parameters observed included the number and average weight of fresh fruit bunches (FFB). The relationship between fluctuations in the conditions of monthly rainfall intensity on oil palm production was determined through regression analysis. Rainfall strongly influenced the number of FFB, whereas the average weight of FFB remained relatively constant. The application of EFB and management of Nephrolepis biserrata vegetation facilitates the reduction of drought impacts and increase in oil palm production (15%) as shown in bunch weight and bunch number. EFB and Nephrolepis biserrata vegetation can increase soil organic matter content and improve soil water holding capacity.
L. S. Woittiez, M. T. Van Wijk, M. Slingerland, M. Van Noordwijk, and K. E. Giller, “Yield gaps in oil palm : A quantitative review of contributing factors,” Eur. J. Agron., vol. 83, pp. 57–77, 2017.
D. J. Perkebunan, “Statistik Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit Indonesia 2015-2017,” 2017.
H. H. Tao et al., “Effects of best management practices on dry matter production and fruit production efficiency of oil palm,” Eur. J. Agron., vol. 90, no. December 2016, pp. 209–215, 2017.
R. H. V. Corley and P. B. Tinker, The Oil Palm, Fifth Edit. Blackwell Science Ltd., 2016.
E. Dufrene and B. Saugier, “Gas Exchange of Oil Palm in Relation to Light, Vapour Pressure Deficit, Temperature, and Leaf Age,” Funct. Ecol., vol. 7, no. 1, p. 97, 1993.
M. M. Alam, C. Siwar, M. W. Murad, and M. E. bin Toriman, “Climate Change, Agricultural Income, and Food Security Issues in Malaysia: Farm Level Assessment,” World Appl. Sci. J., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 431–442, 2011.
M. Nda, M. S. Adnan, M. A. Suhadak, M. S. Zakaria, and R. T. Lopa, “Effects of Hydrological Parameters on Palm Oil Fresh Fruit Bunch Yield),” IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci., vol. 140, no. 1, 2018.
D. Cros, A. Flori, L. Nodichao, A. Omoré, and B. Nouy, “Differential Response to Water Balance and Bunch Load Generates Diversity of Bunch Production Profiles Among Oil Palm Crosses (,” Trop. Plant Biol., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 26–36, 2013.
B. M. K. V Carr, “The Water Relations and Irrigation Requirements of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis): Review,” Expl Agric., vol. 47, pp. 629–652, 2011.
J. M. Sun, Z. L. Ding, and T. S. Liu, “Desert Distributions During the Glacial Maximum and Climatic Optimum: Example of China,” Episodes, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 28–31, 1998.
R. Lal, “Soil carbon sequestration impacts on global climate change and food security,” Science (80-. )., vol. 304, no. 5677, pp. 1623–1627, 2004.
H. L. van Asperen, A. M. C. Bor, M. P. W. Sonneveld, H. J. Bruins, and N. Lazarovitch, “Properties of anthropogenic soils in ancient run-off capturing agricultural terraces in the Central Negev desert (Israel) and related effects of biochar and ash on crop growth,” Plant Soil, vol. 374, no. 1–2, pp. 779–792, 2014.
Mashudi, Z. Kusuma, Soemarno, and S. Prijono, “Role of Cajuput Waste Compost Against the Physical Quality of Sandy Soil,” J. Degrad. Min. Lands Manag., vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 1837–1846, 2019.
L. I. M. K. I. M. Chiew and Z. A. Rahman, “The Effects Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches on Oil Palm Nutrition and Yield, Proper, and Soil Chemical Properties,” J. Oil Palm Res., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 1–9, 2002.
G. Singh, “The Malaysian Oil Palm Industry: Progress Towards Environmentally Sound and Sustainable Crop Production,” Ind. Environ., 1999.
L. V. Kheong, Z. A. Rahman, M. H. Musa, and A. Hussein, “Empty fruit bunch application and oil palm root proliferation,” J. Oil Palm Res., vol. 22, no. APRIL, pp. 750–757, 2010.
M. Ariyanti, S. Yahya, K. Murtilaksono, Suwarto, and H. H. Siregar, “Study of the Growth of Nephrolepis biserrata Kuntze and Its Utilization as Cover Crop Under Mature Oil Palm Plantation,” IJSBAR, vol. 4531, pp. 325–333, 2015.
M. Ariyanti, S. Yahya, K. Murtilaksono, Suwarto, and H. H. Siregar, “Water Balance in Oil Palm Plantation with Ridge Terrace and Nephrolepis biserrata as Cover Crop,” J. Trop. Crop Sci., vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 35–41, 2016.
J.-C. Combres et al., “Simulation of Inflorescence Dynamics in Oil Palm and Estimation of Environment-Sensitive Phenological Phases : a Model-Based Analysis,” Funct. Plant Biol., vol. 40, no. NOVEMBER 2012, pp. 263–279, 2013.
D. Tristan and P. France, “Availability of Quality Pollen for Improved Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) seed Production,” Somm. Plant. Rech. développement, vol. 6, no. 4, 1999.
T. Beule et al., “Environmental regulation of sex determination in oil palm : current knowledge and insights from other species,” pp. 1529–1537, 2011.
S. Paramananthan, “Managing Marginal Soils for Sustainable Growth of Oil Palms in the Tropics,” J. Oil Palm Environ., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1–16, 2013.
Henson I.E. and M.T. Dolmat. Seasonal Variation In Yield and Developmental Processes in an Oil Palm Density Trial on a Peat Soil: Bunch Weight Components. J. Oil Palm Research Vol. 16 (2): 106-120. 2004
I. Comte, F. Colin, J. K. Whalen, O. Grünberger, and J. P. Caliman, Agricultural Practices in Oil Palm Plantations and Their Impact on Hydrological Changes, Nutrient Fluxes and Water Quality in Indonesia. A Review., 1st ed., vol. 116. Elsevier Inc., 2012.
B. Samedani, A. S. Juraimi, M. Y. Rafii, S. A. Sheikh Awadz, M. P. Anwar, and A. R. Anuar, “Effect of cover crops on weed suppression in oil palm plantation,” Int. J. Agric. Biol., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 251–260, 2015.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development