Physical Properties and Glycemic Index of Organic and Conventional Black Rice Grown in Bali Indonesia
Similar variety of black rice was grown by organic and conventional methods in Jatiluweh and Penatih districts of West Bali, respectively, separated by 46 km distance. Both rice are very similar having black pericarp and white rice inside. In this study we found that the degree of crystallinity of the two rice is about 24%. The Bragg parameters of the conventional rice are very close to α-amylose dehydrate, whereas the organic rice exists in polymorphic form. The crystallites in the endosperm area are dominated by polyhedral shape in contact with each other at the edges and formed a cyclic geometric environment. The size of the crystallites was between three and six microns. On the whole the crystallites are packed in rectangular blocks connected with one another radially from the centre towards the pericarp. XRF experiments show both rice contain P, K, S, Si, Mg, Cl, Al, Zn, Fe, Cu and Rb. However, ruthenium and manganese were detected in the organic rice. Both organic and conventional black rice possess low glycemic index of about 31±5.0 compared to 50±5.8 for commercial Basmati rice. Thermogravimetric investigation showed that the black rice was stable up to about 300°C and the gradual mass loss between 80 and 210°C is due to water molecules and additional components presence in the rice. After the major decomposition at 310°C the mass gradually decreased and reached 18% residual at 600°C.
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