Synthesis and Characterization of Pectin–Chitosan crosslinked of BADGE for Adsorbents Candidate of Textile Dye Waste Water
The increasing development of the textile industry in Indonesia has resulted in a negative effect on the dyes' wastewater that can pollute the environment. There are several methods developed to reduce the dyestuff levels in water pollution, such as coagulation and flocculation, membrane filtration, adsorption, precipitation, photocatalytic degradation, ion exchange, advanced oxidation, and biological treatment. In order to find out the solution, it is necessary to process liquid dyes waste, which has several advantages, including the relatively low cost and high efficiency in the process of absorbing liquid dyes. Commercial Chitosan and Pectin, Bisphenol A Diglysidyl Ether (BADGE) were purchased from Sigma Aldrich (Germany), Aceton, Acetic Acid 5%, and Aquadest. Mesoporous Pectin-Chitosan crosslinked BADGE (Pec-Chi-BADGE) membrane was successfully synthesized by the coacervation method, by mixing chitosan solution in 5% acetic acid and pectin solution in aqua dest, then added BADGE as a crosslinker to the solution. The structure and surface characteristics of Chi-Pec-BADGE membranes were analysed using Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and XRD. Based on the FTIR characterization indicate that pectin chitosan crosslinked BADGE was successfully synthesized. The results showed that Chi-Pec-BADGE membranes could show the shift of peaks characterized by FTIR meant interactions of functional groups carboxyl, amine, and hydrogen. The results of XRD show that the Chi-Pec-BADGE membranes characteristic was amorphous. Furthermore, SEM data shows that the structure of the adsorbent was porous.
Masykur, A., Wibowo, A.H., Martini, T., Laras, K.C, “Syntheses of Chitosan Macropore and Application as Procion Red Dyes Adsorbent”, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 1028, 012034, 2018.
Li, Y., Sun, J. Q. Du, L., Zhang, X., Yang, S., Wu, Y., Xia, Z., Wang, L., Xia, A., Cao. “Mechanical and dye adsorption properties of graphene oxide/chitosan composite fibers prepared by wet spinning”, Carbohydr. Polym. Vol. 102 pp. 755–761, 2014.
El-Zawahry, M.M., Abdelghaffar, F., Abdelghaffar, R.A., Hassabo, A.G. “Equilibrium and kinetic models on the adsorption of Reactive Black 5 from aqueous solution using Eichhornia crassipes /chitosan composite”, Carbohydr. Polym, Vol. 136, pp. 507–515, 2016.
Hachi, M., Chergui, A., Selatnia, A.,Cabana H., “Valorization of The Spent Biomass of Pleurotus Mutilus Immobilized as Calcium Alginate Biobeads for Methylene Blue Biosorption,” Environ. Vol 2 pp. 413–430, 2016
C.-Z. Liang, S.-P. Sun, F.-Y. Li, Y.-K. Ong, T.-S. Chung, “Treatment of Highly Concentrated Wastewater Containing Multiple Synthetic Dyes by a Combined Process of Coagulation/Flocculation And Nanofiltration,” J. Membr. Sci, Vol. 469, pp. 306–315, 2014.
Lin, J.Y., Ye, W.Y., Zeng, H.M., Yang, H., Shen, J.N., Darvishmanesh, S., Luis, P., Sotto, A., Van der Bruggen B., “Fractionation Of Direct Dyes And Salts In Aqueous Solution Using Loose Nanofiltration Membranes,” J. Membr. Sci.Vol. 477, pp. 183–193. 2015
Zhao, W.F., Tang, Y.S., Xi, J, Kong, J., “Functionalized Graphene Sheets with Poly (Ionic Liquid) and High Adsorption Capacity of Anionic Dyes,” J. Appl. Surf. Sci, Vol. 326, pp. 276–284, 2015.
Zhu, M.-X., Lee, L., Wang, H.H., Wang Z., “Removal of an Anionic Dye by Adsorption/Precipitation Processes Using Alkaline White Mud,” J. Hazard. Vol. 149 pp 735–741, 2007
Xu, D., Cheng, B., Cao, S., Yu, J. “Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity and Stability of Z-scheme Ag2CrO4- GO Composite Photocatalysts for Organic Pollutant Degradation”, J. Appl. Catal Vol. 164 pp. 380–388, 2015.
Labanda, J., Sabaté, Jilorens, J., “Experimental and Modeling Study of the Adsorption of Single and Binary Dye Solutions with an Ion-Exchange Membrane Adsorber,” J. Chem. Eng, Vol. 166 pp. 536–543, 2011
Saitoh, T., Saitoh, M., Hattori, C., Hiraide, M. “Rapid removal of cationic dyes from water by coprecipitation with aluminum hydroxide and sodium dodecyl sulfate,” J. Environ. Chem. Eng, Vol. 2 pp. 752-758, 2014.
Kajekar, A. V., Dodamani, B. M., Isloor, A. M, Karim, Z. A., Cheer N.B., Ismail, A.F. and Shilton, S.J., “Preparation and Characterization of Novel Psf/PVP/PANI-Nanofiber Nanocomposite Hollow Fiber Ultrafiltration Membranes and Their Possible Applications for Hazardous Dye Rejection,” Desalination, Vol. 365 pp. 117-125, 2015
Dotto, G. L., Santos, J. M.N, Rodrigues, I. L., Rosa, R., Pavan, F.A. and Lima, E.C, “Adsorption of Methylene Blue by ultrasonic surface-modified chitin,” J. of Colloid and Interface Sci., Vol. 446 pp. 133-140, 2015.
Ali, I., Asim, M. and Khan, T. A., “Low-cost adsorbents for the removal of organic pollutants from wastewater,” J. Environ. Manag, Vol. 113, pp. 170-183, 2012.
Jain, A., Gupta, V., Bhatnagar, A. Utilization of industrial waste products as adsorbents for the removal of dyes, J. Hazard Vol. 1 pp. 31–42, 2003
Castilla, C.M., Utrilla, J.R, “ Carbon Materials as Adsorbents for the Removal of Pollutants from the Aqueous Phase,” MRS Bulletin, Vol. 26(11) pp. 890-894, 2001
Ho, Y.S., McKay, G., “Sorption of Dyes and Copper Ions onto Biosorbents,” J. Process Biochem., Vol.38(7) pp. 1047–1061, 2003.
Mohnen, D, “Pectin structure and biosynthesis,” J. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, Vol. 11 pp. 266–277, 2008
Riva R, Ragelle H, Rieux A D, Duhem N, Jerome C, Preat V, Chitosan and Chitosan Derivatives in Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering, Adv. Polym. Sci. 19-44,2011
Muzzarelli, R.A.A, Boudrant, J., Meyer, D., Manno, N., DeMarchis, M., Paoletti, M.G. “Current Views on Fungal Chitin/Chitosan, Human Chitinases, Food Preservation, Glucans, Pectins, and Inulin: A tribute to Henri Braconnot, Precursor of the Carbohydrate Polymers Science, on the Chitin Bicentennial,” Carbohyd. Polym. Vol.87(2) pp. 995-1012, 2012
H. Javadian, F. Ghorbani, H. -a. Tayebi, S.H. Asl, “Study of the adsorption of Cd (II) from aqueous solution using zeolite-based geopolymer, synthesized from coal fly ash; kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies,” Arab. J. Chem. Vol. 6 pp. 837–849, 2015
Bigucci F., Luppi, B., Cerchiara, T., Sorrenti, M., Bettinetti, G., Rodriguez, L., Zecchi, V., “Chitosan/pectin Polyelectrolyte Complexes: Selection of Suitable Preparative Conditions for Colon-Specific Delivery of Vancomycin,” Eur. J. Pharm. Sci., Vol 35 (5) pp. 435–441, 2008
Ghaffari, A., Navaee, K., Oskoui, M., Bayati, A., Rafiee-Tehrani, M., “Preparation and characterization of free mixed-film of pectin/chitosan/Eudragit® RS intended for sigmoidal drug delivery,” Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm., Vol. 67 (1) 175–186, 2007
Bernabé, P., Peniche, C., Argüelles-Monal, W. “Swelling behavior of chitosan/pectin polyelectrolyte complex membranes. Effect of thermal cross-linking”, Polym. Bull. Vol. 55 (5), pp 367–375, 2005
Hastuti, B., Mudasir, Siswanta, D., Triyono, “Preparation and Pb(II) Adsorption Properties of Crosslinked Pectin-Carboxymethyl Chitosan Film,” Indonesian . J. Chem, Vol. 3, pp. 248-255, 2015.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development