Conversion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent on Biogas Production with Consortium Bacteria

Nyimas Ulfatry Utami, Muhammad Said, Muhammad Faizal, Leily Nurul Komariah


Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) is a liquid waste that has a high organic content and it can be fermented using bacteria to produce biogas. POME is non-toxic but the high organic contents can disturb the ecosystems and cause the environmental pollution in the water body. POME contains microorganisms that have the potential to hydrolyze oils, celluloses, and protein. Potential bacteria for degradation of POME can be obtained by isolating the waste itself (indigenous bacteria). Indigenous bacteria that have been isolated from POME, namely: Stenotrophomonas rhizopila strain E-P10 (KP 1.2) and Bacillus toyonensis strain BCT-7112 (KAN 1) are used as consortium bacteria in the process of waste degradation.  The research sequence consists of rejuvenation of bacteria, preparation of medium mineral, starter and bacterial inoculum. The research aims to degrade the substrates from POME using a consortium and indigenous bacteria to produce biogas. The substrate degradation process is carried out in a bioreactor with degradation time 0, 20, 21-22, 23-26, 27-30, 31-34 and 35-38 days. Bacterial population growth was calculated using a haemacytometer. The highest population of the consortium and indigenous bacteria were found at 7.94x107 mg/mL and 7.23x107 mg/mL.  The biogas contents were analyzed using the Gas Chromatography (GC) with units of % mole. The highest production of biogas contains 68.6 % mole methane gas (CH4) and 21.7 % mole carbon dioxide gas (CO2) with the consortium bacteria. While using the KAN 1 bacteria, the highest production of biogas contains 64.0 % mole methane gas (CH4) and 22.0 % mole carbon dioxide gas (CO2).


palm oil mill effluent; consortium bacteria; biogas.

Full Text:



M. Habibullah and Sub-directorate of Estate Crops Statistics, Indonesian Oil Palm Statistics, Jakarta: BPS-Statistic Indonesia, 2017.

P. N. Rahardja, “Comparative study about liquid waste processing technology of palm oil mill effluent,” Environment Technology of Journal, vol. 10 (1), ISSN 1441-318X. 2009.

A. S. Rahayu, D. Karsiwulan, H. Yuwono, I. Trisnawati, S. Mulyasari, S. Rahardjo, S. Hokermin, and V. Paramita, POME to Biogas 2nd Edition. Jakarta: Winrock International, 2015.

T. E. Agustina, B. Sulistyono, and R. Anugrah, “Treatment of palm oil mill effluent with Fenton and adsorption-Fenton combination methods,” Chemical Engineering of Journal, vol. 22 (3). 2016.

I. J. Ibe, J. N. Oblige, J. Orji, P. L. Nwanze, C. Ibejisika, and B. N. Okechi, “Effects of palm oil mill effluent (POME) on soil bacteria and enzymes at a different season,” Int. J. Curr Microbial. App. Sci. vol. 3 (10), pp. 928-934, 2014.

S. N. B. A. Khadaroo, P. Grassia, P. Gouwanda, and P. E. Poh, “Is the dewatering of palm oil mill effluent (POME) feasible? Effect of temperature on POME’s rheological properties and compressive behavior,” Chemical Engineering Science, vol. 202, pp. 519-528, 2019.

W. L. Liew, M. A. Kassim, K. Muda, S. K. Loh, and A. C. Affam, “Conventional methods and emerging wastewater polishing technologies for palm oil mill effluent treatment: a review,” Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 149, pp. 222-235, 2015.

Z. S. Lee, S. Y. Chin, J. W. Lim, T. Witoon, and C. K. Cheng, “Treatment technologies of palm oil mill effluent (POME) and olive mill wastewater (OMW): a brief review,” Environmental Technology & Innovation, vol. 15, 2019.

Y. Y. Choong, K. W. Chou, and I. Norli, “Strategies for improving biogas production of palm oil mill effluent (POME) anaerobic digestion: A critical review,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 82, pp. 2993-3006, 2018.

S. N. B. A. Khadaroo, P. E. Poh, D. Gouwanda, and P. Grassia, “Applicability of various pretreatment techniques to enhance the anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME): a review,” Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, vol. 7, 2019.

S. Siddarth, “Green energy anaerobic digestion,” Proceedings of the 4th WSEAS Int. Conf. on Heat Transfer, Thermal Engineering and Environment, Elounda, Greece, Third Year Chemical Engineering, Sri Venkateswara College Of Engineering Sriperumbudur Anna University, 2006, pp. 276- 280.

E. I. Ohimain and S. C. Izah, “A review of biogas production from palm oil mill effluents using different configurations of bioreactors,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 70, pp. 242–253, 2017.

A. N. Garritano, M. O. Faber, L. R. V. De Sa, and V. S. F. Leitao, “Palm oil mill effluent (POME) as raw material for biohydrogen and methane production via dark fermentation,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 92, pp. 676-684, 2018.

Sarono, O. Suparno, Suprihatin, and U. Hasanudin, “The performance of biogas production from POME at different temperatures,” International Journal of Technology, vol. 8, pp. 1413-1421, 2016.

H. Tijani, N. Abdullah, dan A. Yuzir, “Enhancing methane production of palm oil mill effluent using two-stage domesticated shear-loop anaerobic contact stabilization system,” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 200, pp. 971-981, 2018.

S. Saelor, P. Kongjan, and S. O-Thong, “Biogas production from anerobic co-digestion of palm oil mill effluent and empty fruit bunches,” Energy Procedia, pp. 717-722, 2017.

A. Z. Taifor, M. R. Zakaria, M. Z. M. Yusoff, M. Toshinari, M. A. Hassan, and Y. Shirai, “Elucidating substrate utilization in biohydrogen production from palm oil mill effluent by Escherichia coli,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 42, pp. 5812-5819, 2017.

S. Lanka and M. Pydipalli, “Reduction of organic load from palm oil mill effluent (POME) using selected fungal strains isolated from POME dump sites,” African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 17, pp. 1138-1145, 2018.

M. Soleimaninanadegani and S. Manshad, “Enhancement of biodegradation of palm oil mill effluents by local isolated microorganism,” International Scholarly Research Notice, pp. 1-8, 2014,

D. Marin, E. Posadas, D. Garcia, D. Puyol, R. Lebrero, and R. Munoz, “Assessing the potential of purple phototrophic bacteria for the simultaneous treatment of piggery wastewater and upgrading of biogas,” Bioresources Technology, vol. 281, pp. 10-17, 2019

M. Aznury, Jaksen, A. Hasan, and A. P. Dila, “Production biomethane from palm oil mill effluent (POME) with truncated pyramid digester in fed batch system,” Proceeding of the 6th International Conference of the Indonesian Chemical Society, 2018.

S. Krishnan, M. F. M. Din, S. M. Taib, M. Nasrullah, M. Sakinah, Z. A. Wahid, H. Kamyab, S. Chelliapan, S. Rezania, and L. Singh, “Accelerated two-stage bioprocess for hydrogen and methane production from palm oil mill effluent using continuous stirred tank reactor and microbial electrolysis cell,” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 229, pp. 84-93, 2019.

N. I. H. A. Aziz and M. M. Hanafiah, “Life cycle analysis of biogas production from anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent,” Renewable Energy, vol. 145, pp. 847-857, 2019.

B. S. Zainal, A. Akhbari, A. A. Zinatizadeh, P. Mohammadi, M. Danaee, N. S. Mohd, and S. Ibrahim, “UASFF start-up for biohydrogen and biomethane production from treatment of palm oil mill effluent,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 44, pp. 20725-20737, 2018.

V. Paolini, M. Torre, W. Giacopini, M. Pastori, M. Segreto, L. Tomasseetti, M. Carnevale, F. Galluci, F. Petracchini, and E. Guerriero, “CO2/CH4 separation by hot potassium carbonate absorption for biogas upgrading,” International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, vol. 83, pp. 186–194, 2019.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development