Crop Water Requirements Analysis Using Cropwat 8.0 Software in Maize Intercropping with Rice and Soybean

Edy Suryadi, Dedi Ruswandi, Sophia Dwiratna, Boy Macklin Pareira Prawiranegara


The increasing level of land conversion from fertile farmland towards infrastructural purposes land such as residential and industrial land results in the devolving of the expansion of maize area from fertile land to land marginal. Maize is one of the crops that is being targeted for development planning in the food and agriculture sector. To improve food self-sufficiency, especially maize, commodity, proper management of the production processes such as crop water requirement and the intercropping pattern is needed. The purpose of this study is to find out how much water needs of plants in intercropping maize with rice, and intercropping corn with soybeans. To intensify food self-sufficiency especially maize commodities, proper management of the production process is required such as crop water requirements and intercropping patterns aspects. The purpose of the research is to find out the value of crop water requirements in intercropping maize with rice, as well as intercropping maize with soybeans. This research uses a descriptive method which describes the crop water requirement affecting the productivity using software Cropwat 8.0. The results show that crop water requirements of maize in intercropping with rice is 406.3 mm while water requirement with soybean intercropping is 408.6 mm during the growing season. The average productivity of maize intercropping with rice was 7.454 ton/ha of a dry kernel, whereas, in intercropping maize with soybean, productivity value of maize is 7.88 ton/ha of a dry kernel. The best combination, according to the productivity and the crop water requirement, is the maize intercropping with soybean. The difference in productivity is up to 5.7 percent with only 2.3 mm additional water demand for maize and intercropping rice plants.


Crop water requirement;Cropwat 8.0 ; Rice; Soybean; Intercropping

Full Text:



F. Rhoads and C. Yonts, “Irrigation Scheduling for Corn — Why and How,” National Corn Handbook, no. October, Iowa, 2000.

J. Zhao and X. Yang, “Distribution of high-yield and high-yield-stability zones for maize yield potential in the main growing regions in China,” Agric. For. Meteorol, vol. 248, no. October 2017, pp. 511–517, 2018.

J. P. Monzon, V. O. Sadras, and F. H. Andrade, “Modelled yield and water use efficiency of maize in response to crop management and Southern Oscillation Index in a soil-climate transect in Argentina,” F. Crop. Res., vol. 130, pp. 8–18, 2012.

D. K. S. Swastika et al., Maize in Indonesia: production systems, constraints and research priorities. Mexico: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), 2004.

D. B. Utomo and D. Ph, “Indonesian Maize Production and Trading for Feed,” in Proceeding International Maize Conference: Agribusiness of Maize-Livestock Integration, 2012, pp. 53–57.

Haryono, “Maize for Food, Feed and Fuel in Indonesia : Challenges and Opportunity,” in Proceeding International Maize Conference: Agribusiness of Maize-Livestock Integration, 2012, pp. 3–9.

F. Hu et al., “Intercropping maize and wheat with conservation agriculture principles improves water harvesting and reduces carbon emissions in dry areas,” Eur. J. Agron., vol. 74, pp. 9–17, 2016.

C. Johansen, M. E. Haque, R. W. Bell, C. Thierfelder, and R. J. Esdaile, “Conservation agriculture for small holder rainfed farming: Opportunities and constraints of new mechanized seeding systems,” F. Crop. Res., vol. 132, pp. 18–32, 2012.

D. Ruswandi et al., “Determination of Combining Ability and Heterosis of Grain Yield Components for Maize Mutants Based on LinexTester Analysis,” Asian J. Crop Sci., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 19–33, 2015.

Y. Yuwariah, J. Supriatna, A. Nuraini, N. P. Indriani, A. T. Makkulawu, and D. Ruswandi, “Screening of Maize Hybrids under Maize / Soybean Intercropping Based on Their Combining Abilities and Multiple Cropping Components,” Asian J. Crop Sci., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 93–99, 2018.

E. Suryadi, D. R. Kendarto, B. A. Sistanto, D. Ruswandi, and S. Dwiratna, “A Study of Crop Water Needs and Land Suitability in the Monoculture System and Plant Intercropping in Arjasari,” Int. J. Adv. Sci. Eng. Inf. Technol., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 554–560, 2018.

S. Dwiratna, N. Bafdal, C. Asdak, and N. Carsono, “Study of Runoff Farming System to Improve Dryland Cropping Index in Indonesia,” Int. J. Adv. Sci. Eng. Inf. Technol., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 390–396, 2018.

B. Nurpilihan, S. Dwiratna, and D. R. Kendarto, “Differences Growing Media In Autopot Fertigation System And Its Response To Cherry Tomatoes Yield,” Indones. J. Appl. Sci., vol. 7, no. May 2016, pp. 63–68, 2017.

L. Zhao, J. Xia, C. yu Xu, Z. Wang, L. Sobkowiak, and C. Long, “Evapotranspiration estimation methods in hydrological models,” J. Geogr. Sci., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 359–369, 2013.

R. G. Allen, L. S. Pereira, D. Raes, and M. Smith, “Crop evapotranspiration: Guidelines for computing crop requirements,” Irrig. Drain. Pap. No. 56, FAO, no. 56, p. 300, 1998.

D. M. Sumner and J. M. Jacobs, “Utility of Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor, reference evapotranspiration, and pan evaporation methods to estimate pasture evapotranspiration,” J. Hydrol., vol. 308, no. 1–4, pp. 81–104, 2005.

U. Surendran, C. M. Sushanth, G. Mammen, and E. J. Joseph, “Modelling the Crop Water Requirement Using FAO-CROPWAT and Assessment of Water Resources for Sustainable Water Resource Management: A Case Study in Palakkad District of Humid Tropical Kerala, India,” Aquat. Procedia, vol. 4, no. Icwrcoe, pp. 1211–1219, 2015.

O. Toda, K. Yoshida, S. Hiroaki, H. Katsuhiro, and H. Tanji, “Estimation of Irrigation Water Using Cropwat Model at Km35 Project Site, in Savannakhet, Lao PDR,” in Role of Water Sciences in Transboundary River Basin Management, 2005, pp. 17–24.

P. Banik and S. Ranjan, “CROPWAT Crop Water Assessment of Plain and Hilly Region Using CROPWAT Model,” Int. J. Substainable Mater. Process. ECO-Efficient-IJSMPE, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 1–9, 2014.

F. Zhiming, L. I. U. Dengwei, and Z. Yuehong, “Water Requirements and Irrigation Scheduling of Spring Maize Using GIS and CropWat Model in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region,” vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 56–63, 2007.

T. Erkossa, A. Haileslassie, and C. MacAlister, “Enhancing farming system water productivity through alternative land use and water management in vertisol areas of Ethiopian Blue Nile Basin (Abay),” Agric. Water Manag., vol. 132, pp. 120–128, 2014.

X. Li, S. Kang, X. Zhang, F. Li, and H. Lu, “Deficit irrigation provokes more pronounced responses of maize photosynthesis and water productivity to elevated CO2,” Agric. Water Manag., vol. 195, pp. 71–83, 2018.

J. A. Tolk, S. R. Evett, W. Xu, and R. C. Schwartz, “Constraints on water use efficiency of drought tolerant maize grown in a semi-arid environment,” F. Crop. Res., vol. 186, pp. 66–77, 2016.

C. Yang, H. Fraga, W. Van Ieperen, and J. A. Santos, “Assessment of irrigated maize yield response to climate change scenarios in Portugal,” Agric. Water Manag., vol. 184, pp. 178–190, 2017.

Y. Wu, F. Huang, Z. Jia, X. Ren, and T. Cai, “Response of soil water, temperature, and maize (Zea may L.) Production to different plastic film mulching patterns in semi-arid areas of northwest China,” Soil Tillage Res., vol. 166, pp. 113–121, 2017.

M. Devkota et al., “Field Crops Research Combining permanent beds and residue retention with nitrogen fertilization improves crop yields and water productivity in irrigated arid lands under cotton, wheat and maize,” F. Crop. Res., vol. 149, pp. 105–114, 2013.

Y. Shen, S. Li, Y. Chen, Y. Qi, and S. Zhang, “Estimation of regional irrigation water requirement and water supply risk in the arid region of Northwestern China 1989-2010,” Agric. Water Manag., vol. 128, pp. 55–64, 2013.

M. Kercheva and Z. Popova, “Use of Irrigation Requirements and Scheduling as Drought Indicator Maize growth stages phases Sowing Late germination,” in BALWOIS 2010, 2010, no. May, pp. 1981–1984.

K. Sreelash, S. Buis, M. Sekhar, L. Ruiz, S. Kumar Tomer, and M. Guérif, “Estimation of available water capacity components of two-layered soils using crop model inversion: Effect of crop type and water regime,” J. Hydrol., vol. 546, pp. 166–178, 2017.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development