Principal Component Analysis for Sensory Profiling of Rendang from Various Region in West Sumatra
Rendang is one of traditional food of Minangkabau society, West Sumatera which has unique flavor and aroma. The characteristic of rendang is the umami taste which is a mixture of salty, sweet and spicy flavor that harmonizes with each other. The main ingredients in the manufacture of rendang are meat, coconut milk, and spices. Spices used in rendang are red chili, red onion, garlic, turmeric, galangal, coriander, lemongrass, ginger, candlenut, bay leaf, turmeric leaves and orange leaves. The use of these spices can improve the aroma and distinctive taste of rendang. The purpose of this study was to identify the sensory characteristics of rendang products from various regions in West Sumatra. The method used to analyze rendang sensory characteristics is Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA) which uses trained panelists on the test. QDA consist of panelist training, Focus Group Discussion (FGD) and sensory testing of rendang products. There are 11 attributes identified by the panelists on rendang are obtained from FGD, they are blackish color and aroma (oil, roasted coconut, umami, aroma of meat and smoke), and taste (sweet, salty, spicy, umami and bitter). The results of QDA test were analyzed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The PCA identified four major components that accounted for 99.3% of the variation of sensory data. Sensory profiling shows the correlation between each attribute and the sample of rendang indicating that the rendang is spread over four quadrants. Rendang from Bukittinggi is found in the first quadrant and characterized by the aroma of fishy, the taste of salt and sweet. Rendang from Pariaman, Sawahlunto, and Tanah Datar / Batusangkar are found in the second quadrant characterized by umami aroma, spicy flavors, umami taste and aroma of the oil. Rendang from Padang is in the third quadrant and characterized by the aroma of roasted coconut and black color. Rendang from Payakumbuh contained in the fourth quadrant characterized by the aroma of smoke and bitter taste. Based on the evaluation of sensory characteristics performed using PCA, it can be concluded that the new sensory characteristics (the result of a reduction of eleven sensory attributes analyzed) on rendang products in various areas in West Sumatra can be distinguished by four attributes: aroma, cooking time, spices and flavors. This is the first systematic study on profiling of sensory attributes of rending using a standard sensory method.
rendang; profiling; sensory; quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA); principal component analysis (PCA).
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Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development