Influence of ZnO on Antibacterial Properties of Portland Cement

Rahadian Zainul, Randy Trafino, - Krismadinata, Remon Lapisa, Putri Azhari, Amalia Putri Lubis, - Muhardi


This research project focuses on evaluating the antimicrobial properties of a composite material composed of Portland Cement and Zinc Oxide (ZnO). The study assesses the antibacterial activity of this composite by using Escherichia coli (E. coli) as the test microorganism. Bacterial growth assessment is carried out through the Total Plate Count (TPC) method. The investigation involved varying the concentration of ZnO within the Portland Cement composite, specifically at levels of 0%, 1%, 3%, and 5%. The study primarily centers on generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) by ZnO, and this evaluation was conducted under both UV light exposure and without it. This dual approach allows for a comprehensive examination of ROS activity. Furthermore, the research project involves material characterization using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) to determine the nanoparticle size of ZnO and identify the crystal structures present within the composite material. Additionally, morphological analysis is performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to visualize the structural properties of ZnO embedded within the Portland Cement. SEM analysis is conducted at various magnifications, including 1000x, 2500x, 5000x, and 10,000x, to provide a detailed view of the ZnO's structural properties. In summary, this research project explores the antimicrobial potential of a composite material incorporating Portland Cement and ZnO, focusing on ROS generation and the composite material's structural properties. The findings will contribute to our understanding of the material's suitability for applications in antimicrobial environments.


Portland cement; ZnO; Escherichia coli; antibacterial; total plate count

Full Text:



L. Li, Y. Wei, Q. Feng, F. Liu, B. Liu, and B. Pu, "A Review : Progress in Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Portland Cement ( Geopolymer )— Based Composites and the," 2023, doi:

S. N. Zailan et al., "Potential Applications of Geopolymer Cement-Based Composite as Self-Cleaning Coating: A Review," Coatings, vol. 12, no. 2, 2022, doi: 10.3390/coatings12020133.

J. Zhu et al., "Revealing the substitution preference of zinc in ordinary Portland cement clinker phases: A study from experiments and DFT calculations," J. Hazard. Mater., vol. 409, no. October, p. 124504, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124504.

M. Kumar, M. Bansal, and R. Garg, "An overview of beneficiary aspects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on performance of cement composites," Mater. Today Proc., vol. 43, no. xxxx, pp. 892–898, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.matpr.2020.07.215.

J. da S. Andrade Neto, A. G. De la Torre, and A. P. Kirchheim, "Effects of sulfates on the hydration of Portland cement – A review," Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 279, pp. 1–40, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2021.122428.

Y. Zhou et al., "Hydration and Fractal Analysis on Low-Heat Portland Cement Pastes Using Thermodynamics-Based Methods," Fractal Fract., vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 1–28, 2023, doi: 10.3390/fractalfract7080606.

D. L. N. B. Jayawardane, U. UPAS, W. WMNR, and P. CK, "Physical and Chemical Properties of Fly Ash based Portland Pozzolana Cement," Civ. Eng. Res. Exch. Symp. 2012, pp. 8–11, 2012, doi:

N. L. Mai, N. H. Hoang, H. T. Do, M. Pilz, and T. T. Trinh, "Elastic and thermodynamic properties of the major clinker phases of Portland cement: Insights from first principles calculations," Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 287, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2021.122873.

C. Zagaglia, M. G. Ammendolia, L. Maurizi, M. Nicoletti, and C. Longhi, "Urinary Tract Infections Caused by Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Strains—New Strategies for an Old Pathogen," Microorganisms, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 1–12, 2022, doi: 10.3390/microorganisms10071425.

I. Klapiszewska, A. Parus, Å. Åawniczak, T. Jesionowski, Å. Klapiszewski, and A. Åšlosarczyk, "Production of antibacterial cement composites containing ZnO/lignin and ZnO–SiO2/lignin hybrid admixtures," Cem. Concr. Compos., vol. 124, no. March, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2021.104250.

B. A. Dehkordi, M. R. Nilforoushan, N. Talebian, and M. Tayebi, "A comparative study on the self-cleaning behavior and antibacterial activity of Portland cement by addition of TiO2and ZnO nanoparticles," Mater. Res. Express, vol. 8, no. 3, 2021, doi: 10.1088/2053-1591/abef41.

F. E. M. Mostafa et al., "Analyzing the Effects of Nano-Titanium Dioxide and Nano-Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on the Mechanical and Durability Properties of Self-Cleaning Concrete," 2023, doi: ttps://

Hardeli, A. Indra, and Rahadian, "Preparation of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using isolated anthocyanin fromfruit sat (melastomamalabathricum l) dicopimented with salicylic acid as dye," J. Phys. Conf. Ser., vol. 1317, no. 1, 2019, doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1317/1/012028.

R. Zainul, "Effect of temperature and particle motion against the ability of ZnO semiconductor photocatalyst in humic acid," Der Pharm. Lett., vol. 8, no. 15, pp. 120–124, 2016, doi:

R. Zainul, "Determination of the half-life and the quantum yield of ZnO semiconductor photocatalyst in humic acid," Der Pharm. Lett., vol. 8, no. 15, pp. 176–179, 2016, doi:

R. Verma, S. Pathak, A. K. Srivastava, S. Prawer, and S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, "ZnO nanomaterials: Green synthesis, toxicity evaluation and new insights in biomedical applications," J. Alloys Compd., vol. 876, p. 160175, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2021.160175.

A. Fatima et al., "Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Significant Role in Poultry and Novel Toxicological Mechanisms," Biol. Trace Elem. Res., pp. 1–35, 2023, doi: 10.1007/s12011-023-03651-x.

D. Rahmadiawan et al., "Enhanced UV blocking, tensile and thermal properties of bendable TEMPO-oxidized bacterial cellulose powder-based films immersed in PVA/Uncaria gambir/ZnO solution," J. Mater. Res. Technol., vol. 26, pp. 5566–5575, 2023, doi: 10.1016/j.jmrt.2023.08.267.

R. Zainul et al., "Zinc/aluminium–quinclorac layered nanocomposite modified multi-walled carbon nanotube paste electrode for electrochemical determination of bisphenol A," Sensors (Switzerland), vol. 19, no. 4, 2019, doi: 10.3390/s19040941.

M. A. Irshad et al., "Synthesis and characterization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles by chemical and green methods and their antifungal activities against wheat rust," Chemosphere, vol. 258, p. 127352, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127352.

N. Babayevska et al., "ZnO size and shape effect on antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity profile," Sci. Rep., vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 1–13, 2022, doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-12134-3.

I. H. Ifijen, M. Maliki, and B. Anegbe, "Synthesis, photocatalytic degradation and antibacterial properties of selenium or silver doped zinc oxide nanoparticles: A detailed review," OpenNano, vol. 8, no. July, p. 100082, 2022, doi: 10.1016/j.onano.2022.100082.

V. P. Singh, K. Sandeep, H. S. Kushwaha, S. Powar, and R. Vaish, "Photocatalytic, hydrophobic and antimicrobial characteristics of ZnO nano needle embedded cement composites," Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 158, pp. 285–294, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.10.035.

I. Klapiszewska et al., "Influence of zinc oxide particles dispersion on the functional and antimicrobial properties of cementitious composites," J. Mater. Res. Technol., vol. 24, pp. 2239–2264, 2023, doi: 10.1016/j.jmrt.2023.03.131.

A. Babaei, M. Ghazavi, and N. Ganjian, "Experimental investigation of nano-ZnO effect on mechanical properties of cemented clayey sand," Bull. Eng. Geol. Environ., vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 1–16, 2022, doi: 10.1007/s10064-022-02568-4.

F. Amor, M. Baudys, Z. Racova, L. Scheinherrová, L. Ingrisova, and P. Hajek, "Contribution of TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles to the hydration of Portland cement and photocatalytic properties of High Performance Concrete," Case Stud. Constr. Mater., vol. 16, no. February, 2022, doi: 10.1016/j.cscm.2022.e00965.

J. Li, G. Cheng, S. Huang, and P. Lian, "Effect of ZnO on the whiteness of white Portland cement clinker," Cem. Concr. Res., vol. 143, no. December 2020, p. 106372, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2021.106372.

D. E. Navarro-López et al., "Nanocomposites based on doped ZnO nanoparticles for antibacterial applications," Colloids Surfaces A Physicochem. Eng. Asp., vol. 652, no. May, 2022, doi: 10.1016/j.colsurfa.2022.129871.

V. P. Singh, R. Vaish, and E. S. Yousef, "A Review on Cement-Based Composites for Removal of Organic/Heavy Metal Contaminants from Water," Catalysts, vol. 12, no. 11, 2022, doi: 10.3390/catal12111398.

M. Parashar, V. K. Shukla, and R. Singh, "Metal oxides nanoparticles via sol–gel method: a review on synthesis, characterization and applications," J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron., vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 3729–3749, 2020, doi: 10.1007/s10854-020-02994-8.

S. Agrohiya et al., "Nickel Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films for Visible Blind Ultraviolet Photodetection Applications," ECS Sensors Plus, vol. 1, no. 4, p. 043601, 2022, doi: 10.1149/2754-2726/ac973f.

X. Li, J. Li, Z. Lu, and J. Chen, "Properties and hydration mechanism of cement pastes in presence of nano-ZnO," Constr. Build. Mater., vol. 289, p. 123080, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2021.123080.

A. M. Mocioiu et al., "Self-Cleaning and Antibacterial Properties of the Cement Mortar with ZnO/Hydroxyapatite Powders," Inorganics, vol. 10, no. 12, 2022, doi: 10.3390/inorganics10120241.

I. Klapiszewska, A. Kubiak, A. Parus, M. Janczarek, and A. Ślosarczyk, “The In Situ Hydrothermal and Microwave Syntheses of Zinc Oxides for Functional Cement Composites,†Materials (Basel)., vol. 15, no. 3, 2022, doi: 10.3390/ma15031069.

C. Pushpalatha et al., "Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles: A Review on Its Applications in Dentistry," Front. Bioeng. Biotechnol., vol. 10, no. May, pp. 1–9, 2022, doi: 10.3389/fbioe.2022.917990.

J. Ye, B. Li, M. Li, Y. Zheng, S. Wu, and Y. Han, "Formation of a ZnO nanorods-patterned coating with strong bactericidal capability and quantitative evaluation of the contribution of nanorods-derived puncture and ROS-derived killing," Bioact. Mater., vol. 11, no. August 2021, pp. 181–191, 2022, doi: 10.1016/j.bioactmat.2021.09.019.

M. Godoy-Gallardo et al., "Antibacterial approaches in tissue engineering using metal ions and nanoparticles: From mechanisms to applications," Bioact. Mater., vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 4470–4490, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.bioactmat.2021.04.033.

M. Xin, "Crystal Structure and Optical Properties of ZnO:Ce Nano Film," Molecules, vol. 27, no. 16, pp. 1–9, 2022, doi: 10.3390/molecules27165308.

M. Benamara, A. Ly, S. Soltani, M. Essid, and H. Dahman, "RSC Advances Enhanced detection of low concentration volatile organic compounds using advanced doped zinc oxide sensors," pp. 30230–30242, 2023, doi: 10.1039/d3ra03143h.

T. Hashimoto, E. R. Letts, and D. Key, "Progress in Near-Equilibrium Ammonothermal (NEAT) Growth of GaN Substrates for GaN-on-GaN Semiconductor Devices," Crystals, vol. 12, no. 8, 2022, doi: 10.3390/cryst12081085.

K. Wijaya et al., "Recent Trends and Application of Nanomaterial Based on Carbon Paste Electrodes: A Short Review," Evergreen, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 1374–1387, 2023, doi: 10.5109/7151686.

C. Ortega-Nieto, N. Losada-Garcia, D. Prodan, G. Furtos, and J. M. Palomo, "Recent Advances on the Design and Applications of Antimicrobial Nanomaterials," Nanomaterials, vol. 13, no. 17, 2023, doi: 10.3390/nano13172406.

T. Iqbal, A. Raza, M. Zafar, S. Afsheen, I. Kebaili, and H. Alrobei, "Plant-mediated green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles for novel application to enhance the shelf life of tomatoes," Appl. Nanosci., vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 179–191, 2022, doi: 10.1007/s13204-021-02238-z.

M. H. Aleinawi, A. U. Ammar, M. Buldu-Akturk, N. S. Turhan, S. Nadupalli, and E. Erdem, "Spectroscopic Probing Of Mn-Doped ZnO Nanowires Synthesized via a Microwave-Assisted Route," J. Phys. Chem. C, vol. 126, no. 8, pp. 4229–4240, 2022, doi: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.2c00009.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development