Determination of Effectiveness and Efficiency of Production Factors in Sweet Potato Farming in Lamongan, Indonesia

Emmy Hamidah, Endang Siti Rahayu, Joko Sutrisno, Sri Marwanti


Food crops have a strategic role in agricultural development, covering food security growth, opening up employment opportunities, and income sources in regional and national economies. This research aims to determine the relationship patterns of sweet potato farming production factors. This research utilized a quantitative approach with the survey method. The data were obtained through questionnaires, and the sampling method used a census of 348 respondent farmers in six sweet potato center villages. The Maximum Probability Estimation frontier 4.1 method was employed to calculate the technical efficiency of sweet potato farming. The results showed that the production factors significant at the trust level of 99 percent, 90 percent, and positive value for sweet potato production in Lamongan Regency, Indonesia, were land area production, Urea fertilizer, Phonska fertilizer, ZA fertilizer, and SP36 fertilizer. The technical efficiency attainment level of sweet potato farming was very high, indicating that sweet potato farming in the research was efficient, with an average technical efficiency of 0.90 percent. The achievement level of allocative efficiency on sweet potato farming was relatively low, implying that sweet potato farming was inefficient, with an average localized efficiency of 0.50 percent. The economic efficiency of sweet potato farming was very low, depicting inefficient sweet potato farming, with an average economic efficiency of 0.48 percent. Therefore, sweet potato farmers must optimize land use, ZA, Urea, SP36, and Phonska to produce sweet potatoes optimally to support food security.


Production factors; technical efficiency; allocative efficiency; economic efficiency; stochastic frontier; production; sweet potato.

Full Text:



B. H. Isnawan, Supriyono, Supriyadi, and Samanhudi, “Secondary macronutrients up-take, root development, and chlorophyll content of local rice varieties grown under system of rice intensification (SRI) vs. conventional methods,” Int J Adv Sci Eng Inf Technol, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 381–388, 2020, doi: 10.18517/IJASEIT.10.1.11057.

K. Stenchly, T. Feldt, D. Weiss, J. N. Andriamparany, and A. Buerkert, “The explanatory power of silent comics: An assessment in the context of knowledge transfer and agricultural extension to rural communities in southwestern Madagascar,” PLoS One, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1–26, 2019, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0217843.

A. Karuniawan et al., “Storage root yield and sweetness level selection for new honey sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam),” Open Agric, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 329–345, 2021, doi: 10.1515/opag-2021-0219.

N. M. Thuy, N. T. D. Chi, T. H. B. Huyen, and N. V. Tai, “Orange-fleshed sweet potato grown in viet nam as a potential source for making noodles,” Food Res, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 712–721, 2020, doi: 10.26656/fr.2017.4(3).390.

T. Munyuli, Y. Kalimba, E. K. Mulangane, T. T. Mukadi, M. T. Ilunga, and R. T. Mukendi, “Interaction of the fluctuation of the population density of sweet potato pests with changes in farming practices, climate and physical environments: A 11-year preliminary observation from South-Kivu Province, Eastern DRCongo,” Open Agric, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 495–530, 2017, doi: 10.1515/opag-2017-0054.

E. Burbano-Erazo et al., “Interrelation of ecophysiological and morpho-agronomic parameters in low altitude evaluation of selected ecotypes of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [l.] lam.),” Horticulturae, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 1–22, 2020, doi: 10.3390/horticulturae6040099.

S. B. Montoro, J. Lucas Jr, D. F. L. Santos, and M. S. S. M. Costa, “Anaerobic co-digestion of sweet potato and dairy cattle manure: A technical and economic evaluation for energy and biofertilizer production,” J Clean Prod, vol. 226, pp. 1082–1091, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.04.148.

J. A. Rizzolo, A. L. Woiciechowski, A. I. M. Júnior, L. A. Z. Torres, and C. R. Soccol, “The potential of sweet potato biorefinery and development of alternative uses,” SN Appl Sci, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 1–9, 2021, doi: 10.1007/s42452-021-04369-y.

L. V. T. Vi, A. Salakkam, and A. Reungsang, “Optimization of key factors affecting bio-hydrogen production from sweet potato starch,” Energy Procedia, vol. 138, pp. 973–978, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2017.10.092.

A. A. Adeola and E. R. Ohizua, “Physical, chemical, and sensory properties of biscuits prepared from flour blends of unripe cooking banana, pigeon pea, and sweet potato,” Food Sci Nutr, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 532–540, 2018, doi: 10.1002/fsn3.590.

E. A. Donkor, E. Donkor, E. Owusu-Sekyere, and V. Owusu, “The development and promotion of sweet potato yoghurt in ghana: Implications for sustainable production and consumption policies,” Sustain, vol. 12, no. 8, 2020, doi: 10.3390/SU12083336.

J. Low et al., “Sweet potato development and delivery in sub-Saharan Africa,” African J Food, Agric Nutr Dev, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 11955–11972, 2017, doi: 10.18697/ajfand.HarvestPlus07.

M. Hummel et al., “Sensory and cultural acceptability tradeoffs with nutritional content of biofortified orangefleshed sweetpotato varieties among households with children in Malawi,” PLoS One, vol. 13, no. 10, pp. 1–19, 2018, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0204754.

K. Zennah and K. Cyrus, “Potential uses, perceptions and policy issues of genetically modified crops in Africa: A case study of Kenya,” African J Food, Agric Nutr Dev, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 13946–13958, 2019, doi: 10.18697/ajfand.84.blfb1029.

Y. Z. W. Purba and A. Thony-Ak, “Analysis of Factors Affecting Tuber Consumption Based on Income Classes at Palembang City Indonesia,” Int J Adv Sci Eng Inf Technol, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 1696–1701, 2020, doi: 10.18517/ijaseit.10.4.7321.

M. T. B. Lirag, “Determinants of profitability of sweet potato production in Camarines Sur, Philippines,” Int J Adv Sci Eng Inf Technol, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 467–472, 2019, doi: 10.18517/ijaseit.9.2.7520.

E. A. Bonsi, W. A. Plahar, and R. Zabawa, “Nutritional enhancement of Ghanaian weaning foods using the orange flesh sweetpotato ( Ipomea batatas ),” African J Food, Agric Nutr Dev, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 2036–2056, 2014, doi: 10.4314/ajfand.v14i5.

S. David, “Getting a Piece of the Pie : An Analysis of Factors Influencing Women’s Production of Sweetpotato in Northern Nigeria,” J Gender, Agric Food Secur, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1–19, 2015, [Online]. Available:

E. N. Amengor, H. Yeboah, E. Fordjour, and P. P. Acheampong, “Gender Analysis of Sweet Potato Production in Ghana,” Am J Sci Res, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 13–20, 2016, doi: 10.5829/idosi.aejsr.2016.11.1.22808.

L. A. Ochieng, S. M. Githiri, B. A. Nyende, and L. K. Murungi, “A survey of farmers’ perceptions and management strategies of the sweet potato weevil in Homa Bay County, Kenya,” African J Food, Agric Nutr Dev, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 12157–12178, 2017, doi: 10.18697/ajfand.79.16330.

I. Agency of Planning Region Lamongan Regency, East Java, “Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Panjang Daerah (RPJPD) Kabupaten Lamongan 2005-2025,” pp. 1–64, 2000, [Online]. Available:

S. G. Kreneva, E. N. Halturina, T. P. Larionova, M. N. Shvetsov, and V. V. Tereshina, “Influence of factors of production on efficiency of production systems,” Mediterr J Soc Sci, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 411–418, 2015, doi: 10.5901/mjss.2015.v6n3s7p411.

M. F. R. A. M. H. S. Muhammad Babar Akram, Ashfaq Ahmad Maan, Muhammad Ali, “Agro-economic and Social Constraints Faced by the Small Farmers : A Study of Tehsil Faisalabad (Pakistan ),” Int J Agric Biol, vol. 1560–8530/, no. Table II, pp. 935–936, 2004.

N. T. A. J. I. Sarfraz Hassan, “An Economic Analysis of Wheat Farming in the Mixed Farming Zone of Punjab Province, Pakistan,” J Agric Soc Sci, vol. 2235/2005/, pp. 167–171, 2005.

S. I. Ume, B. N. Onunka, T. C. Nwaneri, and G. O. Okoro, “Socio-Economic Determinants of Sweet Poytato Production Among Small Holder Women Farmers In Ezza South Local Goverment Areao of EBONYI STATE , NIGERIA .,” Glob J Adv Res, vol. Vol-3, no. Issue-9 PP. 972-883, pp. 872–883, 2016.

R. Anggraeni, Kadarso, B. T. Sumbodo, W. A. Munandar, and S. R. Ika, “The Profitability of Sweet Potato Farming in Karanganyar Regency, Central Java,” IOP Conf Ser Earth Environ Sci, vol. 662, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2021, doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/662/1/012007.

A. G. Adeyonu, O. L. Balogun, B. O. Ajiboye, I. B. Oluwatayo, and A. O. Otunaiya, “Sweet potato production efficiency in Nigeria: Application of data envelopment analysis,” AIMS Agric Food, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 672–684, 2019, doi: 10.3934/agrfood.2019.3.672.

L. Zhang and R. Liu, “Comparative analysis of technical efficiency of sweet potato production in Beijing,” Proc Int Conf Comput Ind Eng CIE, vol. 2019-Octob, no. May, p. 90400389, 2019, [Online]. Available:

A. Jote, S. Feleke, A. Tufa, V. Manyong, and T. Lemma, “Assessing the efficiency of sweet potato producers in the southern region of ethiopia,” Exp Agric, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 491–506, 2018, doi: 10.1017/S0014479717000199.

Triyono, N. Rahmawati, and B. H. Isnawan, “Technical efficiency of rice farm under risk of uncertainty weather in Yogyakarta, Indonesia,” IOP Conf Ser Earth Environ Sci, vol. 423, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2020, doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/423/1/012036.

M. O. Adewumi and F. A. Adebayo, “Profitability and Technical Efficiency of Sweet Potato Production in Nigeria,” J Rural Dev, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 105–120, 2008, doi: 10.22004/ag.econ.45686.

J. A. Domínguez-Molina, G. González-Farías, and R. Ramos-Quiroga, “Skew-Normality in Stochastic Frontier Analysis,” in Skew-Elliptical Distributions And Their Applications: A Journey Beyond Normality, M. G.Genton, Ed. Chapman & Hall/CRC, 2004, pp. 223–242.

I. S. Sudrajat, E. S. Rahayu, Kusnandar, and Supriyadi, “Effect of social factors in stochastic frontier profit of organic rice farming in boyolali,” Bulg J Agric Sci, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 551–559, 2017.

I. M. Ahmad, S. . Makama, V. . Kiresur, and B. . Amina, “Efficiency of Sweet Potato Farmers in Nigeria: Potentials for Food Security and Poverty Alleviation,” IOSR J Agric Vet Sci, vol. 7, no. 9, pp. 01–06, 2014, doi: 10.9790/2380-07940106.

Gbigbi, Theophilus, and Miebi, “Economic Efficiency of Smallholder Sweet Potato Producers in Delta State , Nigeria : a Case Study of Ughelli South Local Government Area,” Res J Agric Biol Sci, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 163–168, 2011.

O. Matthew, Adewumi, A. Fatimoh, and Adebayo, “Profitability and Technical Efficiency of Sweet Potato Production in Nigeria,” J Rural Dev, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 105–120, 2017, doi: 10.25518/2295-8010.1270.

J. J. Mmasa, E. Msuya, and M. E. Mlambiti, “Social Economic Factors Affecting Consumption of Sweet Potato Products : An Social Economic Factors Affecting Consumption of Sweet Potato Products : An Empirical Approach,” J Humanit Soc Sci, vol. Vol 2, No., no. January 2015, 2012, doi: 10.1000/190.

X. Du, M. Xi, and L. Kong, “Split application of reduced nitrogen rate improves nitrogen uptake and use efficiency in sweetpotato,” Sci Rep, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2019, doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-50532-2.

I. Kakabouki, T. Togias, A. E. Folina, S. Karydogianni, C. Zisi, and D. Bilalis, “Evaluation of yield and nitrogen utilisation with urease and nitrification inhibitors in sweet potato crop (Ipomoea batatas L.),” Folia Hortic, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 147–157, 2020, doi: 10.2478/fhort-2020-0014.

X. Chen, M. Kou, Z. Tang, A. Zhang, and H. Li, “The use of humic acid urea fertilizer for increasing yield and utilization of nitrogen in sweet potato,” Plant, Soil Environ, vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 201–206, 2017, doi: 10.17221/24/2017-PSE.

X. Chen, M. Kou, Z. Tang, A. Zhang, H. Li, and M. Wei, “Responses of root physiological characteristics and yield of sweet potato to humic acid urea fertilizer,” PLoS One, vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 1–11, 2017, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0189715.

R. Sulistiani, Rosmayati, L. A. M. Siregar, and F. Harahap, “The Effects of Temperature and Potassium Fertilizer on the Growth, Yield, and Biochemical Parameters of Ipomoea batatas var. Antin-1,” Acta Agrobot, vol. 73, no. 3, pp. 1–10, 2020, doi: 10.5586/aa.7337.

Y. Gao et al., “Potassium fertilization stimulates sucrose-to-starch conversion and root formation in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.),” Int J Mol Sci, vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 1–19, 2021, doi: 10.3390/ijms22094826.

A. P. Ningrum, S. Suwarto, and A. Setiawan, “Determination of Fertilizer Doses of Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) ‘Rancing,’” J Trop Crop Sci, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 55–63, 2018, doi: 10.29244/jtcs.5.2.55-63.

D. Minemba, D. B. Gleeson, E. Veneklaas, and M. H. Ryan, “Variation in morphological and physiological root traits and organic acid exudation of three sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) cultivars under seven phosphorus levels,” Sci Hortic (Amsterdam), vol. 256, no. May, pp. 1–11, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.scienta.2019.108572.

S. Wang, H. Li, Q. Liu, S. Hu, and Y. Shi, “Nitrogen Uptake, Growth and Yield Response of Orange-fleshed Sweet potato (Ipomoea Batatas L.) To Potassium Supply,” Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 175–185, 2020, doi: 10.1080/00103624.2019.1695821.

A. S. Dahlin and L. Rusinamhodzi, “Yield and labor relations of sustainable intensification options for smallholder farmers in sub‐Saharan Africa. A meta‐analysis,” Agron Sustain Dev, vol. 39, no. 3, 2019, doi: 10.1007/s13593-019-0575-1.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development