Dynamic System for Silvofishery Pond Feasibility in North Sumatera, Indonesia

Nindyah Wulandari, Yuntha Bimantara, Nurdin Sulistiyono, Bejo Slamet, Rizka Amelia, Mohammad Basyuni


Silvofishery is the planting of mangroves in pond area. The commodities selected for silvofishery ponds include tiger shrimp, milkfish, and mangrove crab. The purpose of this research was to find the best silvofishery system based on the average net present value (NPV) using a dynamic model simulation and provide information about the effect of price changes or production of selected commodities on silvofishery. The results of this research showed that tiger shrimp and mud crab are the best and most feasible combinations for silvofishery, having an average NPV of $755.71/ha/year. Meanwhile, silvofishery using tiger shrimp has an average NPV of $332.28/ha/year, and the silvofishery combination of milkfish and tiger shrimp has an average NPV of $-216.45/ha/year. The effect of price increases the variable cost price by 63.3%, which indicates that the silvofishery combination of tiger shrimp and mud crab is still feasible to run. The decline in the selling price of the commodities of tiger shrimps and mud crab by 70% and 50%, respectively, makes this combination still feasible to operate. On the other hand, the surrounding community’s level of consumption greatly affects the level of sale of the silvofishery commodity. Environmental management must also be practiced as best as possible to maintain the functioning of the environment around the ponds to avoid major losses, and periodic maintenance must be done by managers to achieve the production targets. The present study suggested that pond farmers must be wise in making decisions to implement the appropriate combination of silvofishery.


Silvofishery; net present value; tiger shrimp; mangrove crab; milkfish.

Full Text:



S. Mehvar, T. Filatova, A. Dastgheib, E. de Ruyter van Steveninck, and R. Ranasinghe, "Quantifying Economic Value of Coastal Ecosystem Services: A Review, " J. Mar. Sci. Eng., vol. 6, no. 1, p. 5, 2018, doi:10.3390/jmse6010005

M. Basyuni, Y. Bimantara, M. Siagian, R. Wati, B. Slamet, N. Sulistiyono, A. Nuryawan, and R. Leidonald, "Developing community-based mangrove management through ecotourism in North Sumatra Indonesia," IOP Conf. Ser. Earth. Environ. Sci., vol. 126, no. 012109, 2018, doi:10.1088/1755-1315/126/1/012109

M. Basyuni, and N. Sulistiyono, "Deforestation and reforestation analysis from land-use changes in North Sumatran Mangroves, 1990-2015." IOP Conference Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng., vol. 309, no. 012018, 2018, doi:10.1088/1757-899X/309/1/012018

A. Fauzi, A. Sakti, L. Yayusman, A. Harto, L. Prasetyo, B. Irawan, M. Kamal, and K. Wikantika, "Contextualizing mangrove forest deforestation in Southeast Asia using environmental and socio-economic data products," Forests, vol. 10, no. 11, p. 952, 2019, doi:10.3390/f10110952

N. Thomas, R. Lucas, P. Bunting, A. Hardy, A. Rosenqvist, M. Simard, "Distribution and drivers of global mangrove forest change 1996–2010," Plos One, vol. 12, no. 6, e0179302, 2017, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0179302

J. P. Udoh, "Sustainable nondestructive mangrove-friendly aquaculture in Nigeria II: Models, best practices and policy frame work," AACL Bioflux, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 151–173, 2016.

M. Basyuni, K. S. Nasution, Y. Bimantara, R. Hayati, B. Selamet, and N. Sulistiyono, "Mangrove vegetation supports milkfish production in silvofishery pond," IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci., vol. 305, no. 1, 2019, doi:10.1088/1755-1315/305/1/012038

M. Musa, M. Mahmudi, S. Arsad, and N. R. Buwono, "Feasibility study and potential of pond as silvofishery in coastal area: Local case study in Situbondo Indonesia," Reg. Stud. Mar. Sci., vol. 33, 100971, 2019, doi:10.1016/j.rsma.2019.100971.

M. Basyuni, K. S. Nasution, B. Selamet, N. Sulistiyono, Y. Bimantara, L. A. P. Putri, E. Yusraini, R. Hayati, and I. Lesmana, "Introducing of a silvofishery pond on sapling and seedling density based in Lubuk Kertang Village, North Sumatera," IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci., vol. 260, no.1, 2019, doi:10.1088/1755-1315/260/1/012115.

M. Basyuni, A. Fitri, and Z. A. Harahap, "Mapping and analysis land-use and land-cover changes during 1996-2016 in Lubuk Kertang mangrove forest, North Sumatra, Indonesia," IOP Conf. Ser. Earth. Environ. Sci., vol. 126, no. 012110, 2018, doi : 10.1088/1755-1315/126/1/012110

M. Basyuni, P. Yani, and K. S. Hartini, "Evaluation of mangrove management through community-based silvofishery in North Sumatra, Indonesia," IOP Conf. Ser. Earth. Environ. Sci., vol. 122, no. 012109, 2018, doi :10.1088/1755-1315/122/1/012109.

M. J. Kealy, and R. W. Turner, "A test of the equality of closed-ended and open-ended contingent valuations," Am. J. Agr. Econ., vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 321-331, 1993, doi:10.2307/1242916

Asian Development Bank, "Guidelines for the economic analysis of projects. In: Desai, V.V. (Ed.)," Economics and Development Resource Center. 1997.

M. M. Rahman, and M. A. Mahmud, "Economic feasibility of mangrove restoration in the Southeastern Coast of Bangladesh," Ocean. Coast. Manag., vol. 161, pp. 211-221, 2018, doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2018.05.009.

M. I. Wamnebo, M. Y. Karim, R. Syamsuddin, B. Yunus, "Bio-physicochemical analysis of mangrove area of Kayeli Bay, Buru Regency, Maluku Province, Indonesia for the development of mud crab Scylla sp. culture with silvofishery system." AACL Bioflux, vol. 11, no. 4, 1130-1135, 2018.

K. S. Rahman, M. N. Islam, M. U. Ahmed, R. H. Bosma, A. O. Debrot, and M. N. Ahsan. "Selection of mangrove species for shrimp based silvo-aquaculture in the coastal areas of Bangladesh," J. Coast. Conserv., vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 1-13, 2020, doi:10.1007/s11852-020-00770-8.

H. Susilo, Y. Takahashi, G. Sato, H. Nomura, and M. Yabe, "The adoption of silvofishery system to restore mangrove ecosystems and its impact on farmers' income in Mahakam Delta, Indonesia," J. Fac. Agr. Kyushu U., vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 433-442, 2018, doi : hdl.handle.net/2324/1955666.

R. H. Bosma, T. H. Nguyen, A. J. Siahainenia, H. T. Tran, and H. N. Tran, "Shrimp‐based livelihoods in mangrove silvo‐aquaculture farming systems," Rev. Aquac., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 43-60, 2016, doi:10.1111/raq.12072

A. Sahidin, Z. Zahidah, N. Kurniawati, H. Herawati, and A. Rizal, "Fertility Differences between Silvofishery Pond and Conventional Pond in Legonkulon, Subang District, Indonesia," World Sci. News, vol. 118, pp. 115-128, 2019.

R. B. Hastuti, and E. D. Hastuti, Adaptability and growth performance of Avicennia marina seedling within Silvofishery pond," J. Phy. Conf. Ser., vol. 1025, no. 1, pp. 012050), 2018, doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1025/1/012050.

E. D. Hastuti, and R. Budihastuti, "Potential of mangrove seedlings for utilization in the maintenance of environmental quality within silvofishery ponds," Biotropia, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 58-63, 2016, doi:10.11598/btb.2016.23.1.606.

L. R. Anneboina, and K.K. Kumar. "Economic analysis of mangrove and marine fishery linkages in India". Ecosyst. Serv., vol. 24, pp. 114-123, 2017, doi:10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.02.004.

M. Musa, E. D. Lusiana, N. R. Buwono, S. Arsad, and M. Mahmudi, "The effectiveness of silvofishery system in water treatment in intensive whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) ponds, Probolinggo District, East Java, Indonesia," Biodiversitas, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 4695-4701, 2020, doi: 10.13057/biodiv/d211031.

I. Sribianti, and A. H. Sambu, "Management model ecosystem mangrove based on business feasibility." J. Entrep. Edu., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 1-9, 2019.

B. Yunus, G. D. Dirawan, and A. Saru, "The behavior of fishpond farmers with silvofishery insight and its effects on biodiversity of macrozoobenthos in mangrove ecosystem of coastal area," Int. J. Agr. Syst., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 65-77, 2015, doi: 10.20956/ijas.v3i1.49

T. T. N. Nguyen, H. C. Tran, T. M. H. Ho, P. Burny, and P. Lebailly, “Dynamics of Farming Systems under the Context of Coastal Zone Development: The Case of Xuan Thuy National Park, Vietnam,” Agriculture, vol. 9, no. 7, p. 138, 2019, doi:10.3390/agriculture9070138.

C. Agraz-Hernández, R. del Río-Rodríguez, C. Chan-Keb, J. Osti-Saenz, and R. Muñiz-Salazar, “Nutrient Removal Efficiency of Rhizophora mangle (L.) Seedlings Exposed to Experimental Dumping of Municipal Waters,” Diversity, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 16, 2018, doi:10.3390/d10010016.

P. Senff, S. Partelow, L. F. Indriana, N. Buhari, and A. Kunzmann, "Improving pond aquaculture production on Lombok, Indonesia," Aquaculture, vol. 497, pp. 64-73, 2018, doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2018.07.027.

T. T. Luom, N. T. Phong, S. Smithers, and T. Van Tai, "Protected mangrove forests and aquaculture development for livelihoods," Ocean Coast. Manag., vol. 205, pp. 105553, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.oceacoaman.2021.105553.

L. de Souza Queiroz, S. Rossi, L. Calvet-Mir, I. Ruiz-Mallén, S. García-Betorz, J. Salvà-Prat, and de A. J. Andrade Meireles, "Neglected ecosystem services: Highlighting the socio-cultural perception of mangroves in decision-making processes", Ecosyt. Serv., vol. 26, pp. 137-145, 2017, doi:10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.06.013.

M. M. H. Mozumder, M. M. Shamsuzzaman, M. Rashed-Un-Nabi, and E. Karim, "Social-ecological dynamics of the small scale fisheries in Sundarban Mangrove Forest, Bangladesh", Aquac. Fish., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 38-49, 2018, doi:10.1016/j.aaf.2017.12.002 .

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18517/ijaseit.12.3.14199


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development