A New Robotic Learning Activity Design to Increase the Figural Creativity: Originality, Elaboration, Flexibility, and Fluency

Billy Hendrik, Nazlena Mohamad Ali, Norshita Mat Nayan, Nor Azilawati Mat Isa, Mardhiah Masril


Preparing a generation that possesses the skill of Figural Creativity (FC) skills is important in education because figural creativity skills are needed in the industrial revolution 4.0 (IR 4.0) era. Figural creativity skill is the ability to create something new, a new manner, and produce something different from its initial state in providing solutions to the problems faced. One of the IR 4.0 technologies that can improve creativity is robotic technology, but the implementation of robotic technology in education still requires an appropriate learning activity. This study aims to design the new robotic learning activities and analyze their implementation to increase Figural creativity variables. Figural creativity variables consist of four variables: elaboration, flexibility, fluency, and originality. A total of 23 students were recruited in a user study experiment, ages 9-12 years old. Figural creativity skill of students measured by Figural Creativity Test (TKF). This study used mix method approach. The results showed that the new robotic learning activity design could fulfill the valid criteria; expert suggestions are subject to fixing this learning activity. The new robotic learning activity design was implemented in the robotic course. The paired sample t-test showed that robotic learning activity design has a significant difference between pre-test score and post-test score, and it can improve students’ elaboration, flexibility, fluency, and originality. It has a growing impact on all figural creativity variables (fluency = 60.9%, flexibility=56.6%, elaboration = 26.6%, originality =39.3%).


Robotic technology; learning activity; robotic effect; figural creativity.

Full Text:



M. Masril et al., “The Effect of Lego Mindstorms as an Innovative Educational Tool to Develop Students’ Creativity Skills for a Creative Society,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser., vol. 1339, no. 1, 2019, doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1339/1/012082.

H. Y. Liu, C. C. Chang, I. T. Wang, and S. Y. Chao, “The association between creativity, creative components of personality, and innovation among Taiwanese nursing students,” Think. Ski. Creat., vol. 35, no. January, p. 100629, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.tsc.2020.100629.

S. H. Mulyani, B. Hendrik, R. A. Putra, and M. Masril, “IOP Conference Series : Earth and Environmental Science Pattern of Cleanliness with Technology Intervention for Innovation Life Pattern of Cleanliness with Technology Intervention for Innovation Life,” IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci., pp. 1–8, 2017.

H. Syam, M. Basri, A. Abduh, A. A. Patak, and Rosmaladewi, “Hybrid e-learning in Industrial Revolution 4.0 for Indonesia higher education,” Int. J. Adv. Sci. Eng. Inf. Technol., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 1183–1189, 2019, doi: 10.18517/ijaseit.9.4.9411.

A. Brem and H. Spoedt, “Same same but different: Perspectives on creativity workshops by design and business,” IEEE Eng. Manag. Rev., vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 27–31, 2017, doi: 10.1109/EMR.2017.2667143.

V. DIcheva and S. Lesidrenska, “Creativity and technology entrepreneurship as a factor in the accelerated smart growth of the industrial sector in Bulgaria,” 2016 25th Int. Sci. Conf. Electron. 2016, 2016, doi: 10.1109/ET.2016.7753468.

W. Chaiyasoonthorn and W. Suksa-Ngiam, “A model of socio-technical systems enhancing creativity,” Int. Symp. Technol. Soc. Proc., vol. 2017-Augus, pp. 1–6, 2018, doi: 10.1109/ISTAS.2017.8318977.

N. Behnamnia, A. Kamsin, M. A. B. Ismail, and A. Hayati, “The effective components of creativity in digital game-based learning among young children: A case study,” Child. Youth Serv. Rev., vol. 116, no. June, p. 105227, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.105227.

B. Hokanson, “Creativity and educational technology,” Proc. - 6th Int. Conf. Educ. Innov. Through Technol. EITT 2017, vol. 2018-March, pp. 229–233, 2018, doi: 10.1109/EITT.2017.62.

M. Masril, N. Jalinus, and B. Hendrik, “Robotic Education in 21st Century : Teacher Acceptance of Lego Mindstorms as Powerful Educational Tools,” vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 119–126, 2021.

N. C. Zygouris, A. Striftou, A. N. Dadaliaris, G. I. Stamoulis, A. C. Xenakis, and D. Vavougios, “The use of LEGO mindstorms in elementary schools,” IEEE Glob. Eng. Educ. Conf. EDUCON, no. April, pp. 514–516, 2017, doi: 10.1109/EDUCON.2017.7942895.

C. Chalmers, “Robotics and computational thinking in primary school,” Int. J. Child-Computer Interact., vol. 17, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.ijcci.2018.06.005.

I. M. L. Souza, W. L. Andrade, L. M. R. Sampaio, and A. L. S. O. Araujo, “A systematic review on the use of LEGO® robotics in education,” Proc. - Front. Educ. Conf. FIE, vol. 2018-Octob, no. October, 2019, doi: 10.1109/FIE.2018.8658751.

E. Afari and M. S. Khine, “Robotics as an Educational Tool: Impact of Lego Mindstorms,” Int. J. Inf. Educ. Technol., vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 437–442, 2017, doi: 10.18178/ijiet.2017.7.6.908.

L. Negrini, “Teachers’ attitudes towards educational robotics in compulsory school Gli atteggiamenti degli insegnanti della scuola dell ’ obbligo nei confronti della robotica educativa,” Ital. J. Educ. Technol., vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 77–90, 2020, doi: 10.17471/2499-4324/1136.

A. Badeleh, “The effects of robotics training on students’ creativity and learning in physics,” Educ. Inf. Technol., 2019, doi: 10.1007/s10639-019-09972-6.

P. Alves-Oliveira, P. Arriaga, G. Hoffman, and A. Paiva, “Boosting children’s creativity through creative interactions with social robots,” ACM/IEEE Int. Conf. Human-Robot Interact., vol. 2016-April, pp. 591–592, 2016, doi: 10.1109/HRI.2016.7451871.

I. Gorakhnath and J. Padmanabhan, “Educational robotics: a new arena in classroom teaching,” Electron. Interdiscip. Int. Res. J., pp. 216–236, 2017.

P. H. Kahn et al., “Human creativity can be facilitated through interacting with a social robot,” ACM/IEEE Int. Conf. Human-Robot Interact., vol. 2016-April, pp. 173–180, 2016, doi: 10.1109/HRI.2016.7451749.

H. Choi and J. M. Kim, “Implications for activating 3D printer use for education in elementary and secondary schools,” Int. J. Adv. Sci. Eng. Inf. Technol., vol. 8, no. 4–2, pp. 1546–1551, 2018, doi: 10.18517/ijaseit.8.4-2.5722.

I. P. Carvalho et al., “Children's performance on Raven's Coloured progressive matrices in Portugal: The Flynn effect," Intelligence, vol. 82, no. August, p. 101485, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.intell.2020.101485.

K. G. Miroshnik and O. V. Shcherbakova, "The proportion and creativity of 'old' and 'new' ideas: Are they related to fluid intelligence?," Intelligence, vol. 76, no. August, p. 101384, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.intell.2019.101384.

J. P. Byrnes, "Piaget’s cognitive-developmental theory,” Curated Ref. Collect. Neurosci. Biobehav. Psychol., no. April, pp. 543–552, 2019, doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-809324-5.23519-0.

G. S. Halford, “Cognitive developmental theories,” Curated Ref. Collect. Neurosci. Biobehav. Psychol., no. December 2015, pp. 298–308, 2017, doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-809324-5.05787-4.

T. O. Dalamu, “Nigerian Children Specimens as Resonance of Print Media Advertising : What for ?,” Acta Univ. Danubius, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 79–111, 2017.

C. H. Yoon, “A validation study of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking with a sample of Korean elementary school students,” Think. Ski. Creat., vol. 26, pp. 38–50, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.tsc.2017.05.004.

Y. Trisnayanti, A. Khoiri, Miterianifa, and H. D. Ayu, “Development of Torrance test creativity thinking (TTCT) instrument in science learning,” AIP Conf. Proc., vol. 2194, no. December, 2019, doi: 10.1063/1.5139861.

C. Rominger, I. Papousek, C. M. Perchtold, B. Weber, E. M. Weiss, and A. Fink, “The creative brain in the figural domain: Distinct patterns of EEG alpha power during idea generation and idea elaboration,” Neuropsychologia, vol. 118, pp. 13–19, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2018.02.013.

J. H. Lozano and J. Revuelta, “Investigating operation-specific learning effects in the Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices: A linear logistic test modeling approach,” Intelligence, vol. 82, no. June, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.intell.2020.101468.

S. Said-Metwaly, W. Van den Noortgate, and B. Barbot, “Torrance test of creative thinking-verbal, Arabic version: Measurement invariance and latent mean differences across gender, year of study, and academic major,” Think. Ski. Creat., vol. 39, no. September 2020, p. 100768, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.tsc.2020.100768.

B. Hendrik, N. M. Ali, and N. M. Nayan, “Robotic Technology for Figural Creativity Enhancement: Case Study on Elementary School,” Int. J. Adv. Comput. Sci. Appl., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 536–543, 2020, doi: 10.14569/IJACSA.2020.0110166.

G. Jiménez, K. Fernández-cosials, and E. Mínguez, “Could Creativity be Taught and Evaluated in A Nuclear Could Creativity be Taught and Evaluated in A Nuclear Engineering Course ?,” in NESTet2016, 2017, no. May.

B. Hendrik, N. M. Ali, R. Sulaiman, M. Masril, and H. T. Fikri, “Relationship between intellectual intelligence , Figural Creativity , and Innovation,” in Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, 2019, vol. 229, no. 1, pp. 545–555, doi: https://doi.org/10.2991/iciap-18.2019.46.

B. Hendrik, N. M. Ali, and N. M. Nayan, “Validity of figural creativity model development based on robotic learning concept,” Int. J. Adv. Appl. Sci., vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 102–109, 2020, doi: 10.21833/ijaas.2020.11.011.

Y. S. Kim, S. W. Lee, M. S. Kim, J. A. Park, and J. Y. Jeong, “An exercise programme for cognitive elements of design creativity,” J. Des. Res., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 185–202, 2011, doi: 10.1504/JDR.2011.040594.

A. Stolaki and A. A. Economides, “The Creativity Challenge Game: An educational intervention for creativity enhancement with the integration of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs),” Comput. Educ., vol. 123, pp. 195–211, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2018.05.009.

J. D. Hoffmann and S. W. Russ, “Fostering pretend play skills and creativity in elementary school girls: A group play intervention,” Psychol. Aesthetics, Creat. Arts, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 114–125, 2016, doi: 10.1037/aca0000039.

S. Santoso, Advanced Parametric Statistics Basic Concepts and Applications with SPSS. Jakarta: PT. Elex Media Komputindo, 2018.

D. T. Burhans and K. Dantu, “ARTY: Fueling Creativity through Art, Robotics and Technology for Youth,” Assoc. Adv. Artif. Intell., pp. 4765–4770, 2017.

F. R. Sullivan, “Robotics in STEM Education: Redesigning the Learning Experience,” Robot. STEM Educ. Redesigning Learn. Exp., no. October, pp. 1–262, 2017, doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-57786-9.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18517/ijaseit.12.1.14109


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development