The Effect of Fatty Acid Composition on Combustion Characteristics of Vegetable Oils

- Muhaji, I. N. G. Wardana


Vegetable oil is triglyceride molecules consisting of glycerol with three carbon chains as the backbone and three branches of fatty acids. Fatty acid molecules contain carboxylic acid and methyl ester (biodiesel). The properties of methyl esters from vegetable oils are almost similar to those of diesel oil. Therefore, fatty acids are a good potential source for diesel oil. This study aims to elucidate the effect of fatty acid composition on the combustion characteristics of vegetable oil. In this study, the combustion characteristics of the oil were observed experimentally by burning a single droplet on a heated stainless-steel plate. The results show that vegetable oil is burned in three stages: burning unsaturated fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, and glycerol at the first, second, and third stages, respectively. Compared to ceiba pentandra, cotton, and coconut oils, the combustion characteristics of jatropha curcas linn oil resemble most of the diesel oil. The burning of ceiba pentandra oil has two small explosions, while jatropha curcas linn, cottonseed, and diesel oils have only one small explosion, and no explosion occurs during the coconut oil burning. Unsaturated fatty acids and glycerol are highly explosive. The burning rate of the vegetable oil droplet is influenced by the flashpoints, fatty acid content, and dissociation energy of fatty acid bonds. The larger the number of the unsaturated fatty acid component, the higher the burning rate of the oil.


Vegetable oils; fatty acid composition; flame; three-stage combustion; explosion.

Full Text:



I. N. G. Wardana, “Combustion characteristics of jatropha curcas lin oil droplet at various oil temperatures,” Fuel, vol. 89, p. 65, 2010, doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2009.07.002.

I. N. G. Wardana, A. Widodo, and W. Wijayanti, “Improving Vegetable Oil Properties by Transforming Fatty Acid Chain Length in Jatropha Oil and Coconut Oil Blends,” Energies, vol. 11, no. 2, p. 394, Feb. 2018, doi: 10.3390/en11020394.

T. Ahmed, A. Kourmatzis, P. X. Pham, and A. R. Masri, “Droplet evaporation modeling of electrified fatty acid methyl esters,” Fuel, vol. 231, pp. 244–252, Nov. 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2018.05.085.

H. Y. Nanlohy, I. N. G. Wardana, N. Hamidi, L. Yuliati, and T. Ueda, “The effect of Rh3+ catalyst on the combustion characteristics of crude vegetable oil droplets,” Fuel, vol. 220, pp. 220–232, May 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2018.02.001.

X. Chen, C. Wang, Z. Wang, H. Zhao, and H. Liu, “Preparation of high concentration coal water slurry of lignite based on surface modification using the second fluid and the second particle,” Fuel, vol. 242, pp. 788–793, Apr. 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2019.01.007.

E. Marlina, W. Wijayanti, L. Yuliati, and I. N. G. Wardana, “The role of pole and molecular geometry of fatty acids in vegetable oils droplet on ignition and boiling characteristics,” Renew. Energy, vol. 145, pp. 596–603, Jan. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2019.06.064.

J. Wang et al., “Flame spread and combustion characteristics of two adjacent jatropha oil droplets,” Fuel, vol. 285, p. 119077, Feb. 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2020.119077.

M. Bhuiya, M. Rasul, M. Khan, and N. Ashwath, “Performance and Emission Characteristics of Binary Mixture of Poppy and Waste Cooking Biodiesel,” Energy Procedia, vol. 110, pp. 523–528, Mar. 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2017.03.179.

M. Singh and S. S. Sandhu, “Performance, emission and combustion characteristics of multi-cylinder CRDI engine fueled with argemone biodiesel/diesel blends,” Fuel, vol. 265, p. 117024, Apr. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2020.117024.

H. Du, Z. Huque, and R. R. Kommalapati, “Impacts of Biodiesel Applied to the Transportation Fleets in the Greater Houston Area,” J. Renew. Energy, vol. 2018, pp. 1–9, Jun. 2018, doi: 10.1155/2018/7350715.

M. Elkelawy et al., “Experimental studies on the biodiesel production parameters optimization of sunflower and soybean oil mixture and DI engine combustion, performance, and emission analysis fueled with diesel/biodiesel blends,” Fuel, vol. 255, p. 115791, Nov. 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2019.115791.

M. Bhuiya, M. Rasul, M. Khan, and N. Ashwath, “Performance and emission characteristics of a compression ignition (CI) engine operated with beauty leaf biodiesel,” Energy Procedia, vol. 160, pp. 641–647, Feb. 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2019.02.216.

S. Simsek, “Effects of biodiesel obtained from Canola, sefflower oils and waste oils on the engine performance and exhaust emissions,” Fuel, vol. 265, p. 117026, Apr. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2020.117026.

A. Uyumaz et al., “Experimental investigation on the combustion, performance and exhaust emission characteristics of poppy oil biodiesel-diesel dual fuel combustion in a CI engine,” Fuel, vol. 280, p. 118588, Nov. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2020.118588.

S. Ellappan and S. Rajendran, “A comparative review of performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine using eucalyptus-biodiesel blend,” Fuel, vol. 284, p. 118925, Jan. 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2020.118925.

N. Yilmaz, A. Atmanli, and M. Trujillo, “Influence of 1-pentanol additive on the performance of a diesel engine fueled with waste oil methyl ester and diesel fuel,” Fuel, vol. 207, pp. 461–469, Nov. 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2017.06.093.

T. A. Hoang and V. Van Le, “The Performance of A Diesel Engine Fueled With Diesel Oil, Biodiesel and Preheated Coconut Oil,” Int. J. Renew. Energy Dev., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1–7, Mar. 2017, doi: 10.14710/ijred.6.1.1-7.

M. A. H. Altaie, R. B. Janius, Y. H. Taufiq-Yap, and U. Rashid, “Basic properties of methyl palmitate-diesel blends,” Fuel, vol. 193, pp. 1–6, Apr. 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2016.12.031.

H. G. How, H. H. Masjuki, M. A. Kalam, and Y. H. Teoh, “Influence of injection timing and split injection strategies on performance, emissions, and combustion characteristics of diesel engine fueled with biodiesel blended fuels,” Fuel, vol. 213, pp. 106–114, Feb. 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2017.10.102.

R. A. Alenezi, Erdiwansyah, R. Mamat, A. M. Norkhizan, and G. Najafi, “The effect of fusel-biodiesel blends on the emissions and performance of a single cylinder diesel engine,” Fuel, vol. 279, p. 118438, Nov. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2020.118438.

V. Dee and B. D. Shaw, “Combustion of propanol–glycerol mixture droplets in reduced gravity,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., vol. 47, no. 22, pp. 4857–4867, Oct. 2004, doi: 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2004.05.025.

D. Perdana, L. Yuliati, N. Hamidi, and I. N. G. Wardana, “The Role of Magnetic Field Orientation in Vegetable Oil Premixed Combustion,” J. Combust., vol. 2020, pp. 1–11, Jan. 2020, doi: 10.1155/2020/2145353.

M. Muhaji, I. N. . Wardana, Y. Yulianti, and M. Nursasongko, “Combustion of Pure, Hydrolyzed and Methyl Ester Formed of Jatropha Curcas Lin oil,” Int. J. Renew. Energy Dev., vol. 4, no. 3, Oct. 2015, doi: 10.14710/ijred.4.3.211-218.

G. Xu et al., “Inverse influence of initial diameter on droplet burning rate in cold and hot ambiences: a thermal action of flame in balance with heat loss,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 1155–1169, Mar. 2003, doi: 10.1016/S0017-9310(02)00397-6.

A. Wibowo, I. N. G. Wardana, S. Wahyudi, and D. Widhiyanuriyawan, “A comparative analysis of RGB color spray combustion of kapok seed oil and jatropha oil,” 2018, p. 030034, doi: 10.1063/1.5042954.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development