Characterization of Physicochemical Properties of Chitosan Coconut Crabs Shells (Birgus latro)

Hamidin Rasulu, Danar Praseptiangga, I Made Joni, Ari Handono Ramelan


The coconut crab, or in the language of North Maluku called coconut crab, is one of the biological resources with high economic value. People consume coconut crab dishes that have a flavor similar to lobster. The utilization of coconut crab shells has not been done. At the same time, this study aims to isolate and characterize chitosan coconut crab shells by deacetylation method using different concentrations of NaOH and different heating times. The results of the best chitosan synthesis with a variation of 15% NaOH concentration, 120 minutes of heating included the characterization of FTIR spectrum DD values (89.15%) so that there was an increase in crystallinity in each peak spectrum of 3448 cm-1 area that binds hydrogen bonds (O-H). Likewise, for molecular weight (368 kDa), the morphology of chitosan CC is shown using SEM, which shows the similarity of the structure of the microfibrils structure. In comparison, the XRD pattern shows distinctive characteristics of peak crystallinity. Likewise, the quality of water content, ash, protein, fat, color of chitosan CC is under the standards of Protan Biopolymer. Chitosan CC micrograph has the same shape of microfibril structure due to the heating process. While the average crystal peak is 19.2-29.4 O, the best treatment recommended in this study is the deacetylation process using a 10% NaOH concentration with a heating time of 120 minutes. Thus chitosan, which has the best characterization value, is used as a polymer that can be used in the food sector.


Chitosan; coconut crab; SEM; XRD; North Maluku.

Full Text:



S. Supyan, and M. Idham, “Kondisi Populasi Kepiting Kelapa (Birgus latro) Dan Strategi Pengelolaannya di Pulau Ternate”. In Prosiding Seminar Nasional Kemaritiman dan Sumber Daya Pulau-Pulau Kecil (Vol. 2, No. 1). 2018.

D. Jusadi, S. Samson, and R. Serosero, ”Study on the coconut crab (Birgus latro) in-situ rearing in Derawan Islands, Indonesia: feeding artificial food (part 1)”. Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation, 12(5), 1918-1928. 2019.

K.K. Gadgey, and A. Bahekar, ”Investigation of mechanical properties of crab shell: A review”. International Journal of Latest Trends in Engineering and Technology, 8(1), 268-281. 2017.

B. Hassan, S. A.S. Chatha, A.I. Hussain, K.M. Zia, and N. Akhtar, ”Recent advances on polysaccharides, lipids and protein based edible films and coatings: A review”. International journal of biological macromolecules, 109, 1095-1107. 2018.

L.D.Y.Pozzo, T.F. da Conceição, A. Spinelli, N. Scharnagl, and A.T. Pires, ”Chitosan coatings crosslinked with genipin for corrosion protection of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets”. Carbohydrate polymers, 181, pp.71-77. 2018.

G. Smets, and P. Rüdelsheim, “Biotechnologically produced chitosan for nanoscale products. A legal analysis”. New biotechnology, 42, pp.42-47. 2018.

A. Ali, and S. Ahmed, ”A review on chitosan and its nanocomposites in drug delivery”. International journal of biological macromolecules, 109, pp.273-286. 2018.

P. S.Bakshi, D. Selvakumar, K. Kadirvelu, and N.S. Kumar, “Chitosan as an environment friendly biomaterial–a review on recent modifications and applications”. International journal of biological macromolecules, 150, 1072-1083. 2020.

O.P.Gbenebor, S.O. Adeosun, G.I. Lawal, S. Jun, and S.A. Olaleye, “Acetylation, crystalline and morphological properties of structural polysaccharide from shrimp exoskeleton”. Engineering science and technology, an international journal, 20(3), pp.1155-1165. 2017.

J. Hafsa,M. Ali Smach, M.R.B. Khedher, B. Charfeddine, K. Limem, H. Majdoub, and S. Rouatbi, “Physical, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of chitosan films containing Eucalyptus globulus essential oil”. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 68, pp.356-364. 2016.

H.E. Knidri, J. Dahmani, A. Addaou, A. Laajeb, and A. Lahsini, ”Rapid and efficient extraction of chitin and chitosan for scale-up production: Effect of process parameters on deacetylation degree and molecular weight”. International journal of biological macromolecules, 139, 1092-1102. 2019.

Z. Khiari, S. Kelloway, and B. Mason, “Turning Invasive Green Crab (Carcinus maenas) into Opportunity: Recovery of Chitin and Protein Isolate Through Isoelectric Solubilization/Precipitation”. Waste and Biomass Valorization, 11(1), 133-142. 2020.

L. Huang, S. Bi, J. Pang, M. Sun, C. Feng, and X. Chen, “Preparation and characterization of chitosan from crab shell (Portunus trituberculatus) by NaOH/urea solution freeze-thaw pretreatment procedure”. International journal of biological macromolecules, 147, 931-936. 2020.

G. Hao, Y. Hu, L. Shi, J. Chen, A. Cui, W. Weng, and K. Osako, “Physicochemical characteristics of chitosan from swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus) shells prepared by subcritical water pretreatment”. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 1-9. 2021.

Yoshida, C.M., Maciel, V.B.V., Mendonça, M.E.D. and Franco, T.T., 2014. Chitosan biobased and intelligent films: Monitoring pH variations. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 55(1), pp.83-89.

Puspawati dan I N. Simpen, 2010. Optimasi Deasetilasi Khitin Dari Kulit Udang dan Cangkang Kepiting Limbah Restoran Seafood Menjadi Khitosan Melalui Variasi Konsentrasi NaOH. Jurnal Kimia 4 (1), Januari 2010 : 79-90.

S. Sultana, M.S. Rahman, M. M. Islam, M.N. Sakib, and M. Shahruzzaman, “Polymer blends, IPNs, gels, composites, and nanocomposites from chitin and chitosan; manufacturing, and applications”. Handbook of Chitin and Chitosan: Volume 3: Chitin-and Chitosan-based Polymer Materials for Various Applications, 12(13), 14. 2020.

AOAC, 2005. Official methods of analysis, 17th edn. Association of Official Analytical.

S. Sayari, A. Sila, B.E. Abdelmalek, R.B. Abdallah, S.Ellouz-Chaabouni, A. Bougatef, and R. Balti, “Chitin and chitosan from the Norway lobster by-products: Antimicrobial and anti-proliferative activities”. International journal of biological macromolecules, 87, pp.163-171. 2016.

H. Hamdi, S. Hajji, S. Affes, W.Taktak, H.Maâlej, M. Nasri, and R. Nasri, “Development of a controlled bioconversion process for the recovery of chitosan from blue crab (Portunus segnis) exoskeleton”. Food Hydrocolloids, 77, pp.534-548. 2018.

H. Rasulu, D. Praseptiangga, I. M. Joni, and A.H. Ramelan, “Preparation and Characterization of Biopolymer Chitosan Nanofiber from Coconut Crab Shell”. International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, 9(3), 866-873. 2019.

H. S. Han, and K.B. Song,”Antioxidant properties of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) rind pectin films containing kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) peel extract and their application as chicken thigh packaging”. Food Packaging and Shelf Life, 28, 100636. 2021.

S. Pandey, and S. Tiwari,”Facile approach to synthesize chitosan based composite-characterization and cadmium (II) ion adsorption studies. Carbohydrate polymers, 134, pp.646-656. 2015.

S. Kumari, S. H. K. Annamareddy, S. Abanti, and P.K. Rath, “Physicochemical properties and characterization of chitosan synthesized from fish scales, crab and shrimp shells”. International journal of biological macromolecules, 104, pp.1697-1705. 2017.

M. M. Benamar, N. Ammar-Khodja, and L. Adour, ”Biopolymers isolation (chitin and chitosan) from mushroom biomass of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq: Fries) Kummer”. Algerian Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2021.

M. Hamdi, A. Hammami, S. Hajji, M. Jridi, M. Nasri, and R. Nasri, “Chitin extraction from blue crab (Portunus segnis) and shrimp (Penaeus kerathurus) shells using digestive alkaline proteases from P. segnis viscera. International journal of biological macromolecules, 101, pp.455-463. 2017.

M. Muthu, J. Gopal, S. Chun, A. J. P. Devadoss, N. Hasan, and I. Sivanesan, “Crustacean Waste-Derived Chitosan: Antioxidant Properties and Future Perspective”. Antioxidants, 10(2), 228. 2021.

E. Rochima, S.Y. Azhary, R. I. Pratama, C. Panatarani, and I. M. Joni, “Preparation and Characterization of Nano Chitosan from Crab Shell Waste by Beads-milling Method”. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. IOP Publishing (Vol. 193, No. 1, p. 012043). April 2017.

S. Kalliola, E. Repo, V. Srivastava, J. P. Heiskanen, J. A. Sirviö, H. Liimatainen, and M. Sillanpää, “The pH sensitive properties of carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles cross-linked with calcium ions”. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 153, pp.229-236. 2017.

E. Lee, S. J. Park, J. H. Lee, M. S. Kim, and C. H. Kim, Preparation of chitosan–TPP nanoparticles and their physical and biological properties:.Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 11(1), pp.166-167. 2016.

W. Lee, C. M. Petit, G. Cornilescu, J. L. Stark, and J. L. Markley, “The AUDANA algorithm for automated protein 3D structure determination from NMR NOE data”. Journal of biomolecular NMR, 65(2), pp.51-57. 2016.

C. M. Yoshida, V.B.V. Maciel,. M. E. D. Mendonça, and T. T. Franco, “Chitosan biobased and intelligent films: Monitoring pH variations”. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 55(1), pp.83-89. 2014.

T. T. Nguyen, A. R.. Barber, P. Smith, X. Luo, and W. Zhang, “Application and optimization of the highly efficient and environmentally-friendly microwave-intensified lactic acid demineralization of deproteinized Rock lobster shells (Jasus edwardsii) for chitin production”. Food and Bioproducts Processing, 102, pp.367-374. 2017.

B. Bradić, D. Bajec, A. Pohar, U. Novak, and B. Likozar, “A reaction–diffusion kinetic model for the heterogeneous N-deacetylation step in chitin material conversion to chitosan in catalytic alkaline solutions”. Reaction Chemistry & Engineering, 3(6), 920-929. 2018.

A. Rampino, M. Borgogna, P. Blasi, B. Bellich, and A. Cesàro, “Chitosan nanoparticles: Preparation, size evolution and stability”. International journal of pharmaceutics, 455(1), pp.219-228. 2013.

J. Hafsa, M. A. Smach, B. Charfeddine, K. Limem, H. Majdoub, and S. Rouatbi, “Antioxidant and antimicrobial proprieties of chitin and chitosan extracted from Parapenaeus Longirostris shrimp shell waste”. In Annales pharmaceutiques francaises (Vol. 74, No. 1, pp. 27-33). 2016.

H. S. Adhikari, A. Garai, B. P. Marasini, R. Adhikari, and P.N. Yadav, ”Synthesis and Characterization of High Molecular Weight Chitosan, and Antioxidant Activity of Its Chitosan Oligosaccharide Encapsulation”. Journal of Nepal Chemical Society, 42(1), 29-38. 2021.

Y. L. Huang, and Y. H. Tsai, ”Extraction of chitosan from squid pen waste by high hydrostatic pressure: Effects on physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of chitosan”. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 160, 677-687. 2020.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development