Antagonistic Bacteria Bacillus subtilis Formulation as Biopesticide to Control Corn Downy Mildew caused by Peronosclerospora philippinensis

Nurasiah Djaenuddin, Septian Hary Kalqutny, Amran Muis, Muhammad Azrai

Abstract


Downy mildew (DM) is a major disease of corn that can limit production. An alternative method of control that is currently being developed is the use of biopesticides which can inhibit the development of DM. Therefore, this study aims to test the effectiveness of B. subtilis antagonistic bacteria formulation in suppressing DM through seed treatment and foliar spraying. The study was carried out from June to October 2019 at Maros Experimental Farm of the Indonesian Cereals Research Institute.  The first application was done by treating the seeds with the bacterial formulation with a dose of 8 g/kg of seeds. The second application was done at 16 DAP at a dose of 3 g/L. Spraying was done evenly throughout the leaves of the test plant. Observations made include incidents of downy mildew, presence of mycelium lignification, leaf chlorophyll content, stomatal density, plant height, and crop yield. Furthermore, the results showed that the application of the formula B. subtilis with seed treatment and spraying effectively suppressed the development of downy mildew and improved corn plants' growth. The test also showed that mycelium lignification occurred in the treatment using the formula B. subtilis. The treatment of B. subtilis tended to have higher leaf chlorophyll content in corn plants compared to control treatments. Considering the results, the Bima-15 and Perkasa variety have a relatively better response to B. subtilis biopesticides in inhibiting downy mildew infections, improving maize production.


Keywords


Resistant varieties; PGPR; biopesticide; seed treatment.

Full Text:

PDF

References


C. Ginting et al., “Identification of Maize Downy Mildew Pathogen in Lampung and the Effects of Varieties and Metalaxyl on Disease Incidence,” Annu. Res. Rev. Biol., vol. 35, no. May, pp. 23–35, 2020, doi: 10.9734/arrb/2020/v35i730244.

F. Berini, C. Katz, N. Gruzdev, M. Casartelli, G. Tettamanti, and F. Marinelli, “Microbial and viral chitinases: Attractive biopesticides for integrated pest management,” Biotechnol. Adv., vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 818–838, May 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.01.002.

Y. Iftikhar, A. Sajid, Q. Shakeel, Z. Ahmad, and Z. Ul Haq, “Biological Antagonism: A Safe and Sustainable Way to Manage Plant Diseases,” in Plant Disease Management Strategies for Sustainable Agriculture through Traditional and Modern Approaches, I. Ul Haq and S. Ijaz, Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2020, pp. 83–109.

S. Caulier, C. Nannan, A. Gillis, F. Licciardi, C. Bragard, and J. Mahillon, “Overview of the antimicrobial compounds produced by members of the Bacillus subtilis group,” Front. Microbiol., vol. 10, no. FEB, pp. 1–19, 2019, doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.00302.

N. Djaenuddin, Suwarti, S. Pakki, and A. Muis, “Characterization Of Physiological Properties Of Bacteria Isolates Tm4 And Bnt8 In Biopesticide Formulas,” in IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Accepted), 2020.

E. Sabella et al., “Xylella fastidiosa induces differential expression of lignification related-genes and lignin accumulation in tolerant olive trees cv. Leccino,” J. Plant Physiol., 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.jplph.2017.10.007.

C. Tateda et al., “The Host Stomatal Density Determines Resistance to Septoria gentianae in Japanese Gentian,” Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact., vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 428–436, 2019, doi: 10.1094/MPMI-05-18-0114-R.

C. D. Muir, “A Stomatal Model of Anatomical Tradeoffs Between Gas Exchange and Pathogen Colonization,” Front. Plant Sci., vol. 11, no. October, pp. 1–12, 2020, doi: 10.3389/fpls.2020.518991.

A. Muis, N. Djaenuddin, and N. Nonci, “Evaluasi Lima Jenis Inner Carrier Dan Formulasi Bacillus Subtilis Untuk Pengendalian Hawar Pelepah Jagung (Rhizoctonia Solani Kuhn),” J. Hama Dan Penyakit Tumbuh. Trop., vol. 15, no. 2, p. 164, 2016, doi: 10.23960/j.hptt.215164-169.

Y. Bashan, L. E. de-Bashan, S. R. Prabhu, and J. P. Hernandez, “Advances in plant growth-promoting bacterial inoculant technology: Formulations and practical perspectives (1998-2013),” Plant and Soil, vol. 378, no. 1–2. Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 1–33, May-2014, doi: 10.1007/s11104-013-1956-x.

J. Sass, Botanical microtechnique. 3rd Edition. The Lowa State College Press, 1958.

F. Agriculture et al., “Nicotiana benthamiana LRR-RLP NbEIX2 mediates the perception of an EIX-like protein from Verticillium dahliae,” 2020, doi: 10.1111/jipb.13031.

O. M. Finkel, G. Castrillo, S. Herrera Paredes, I. Salas González, and J. L. Dangl, “Understanding and exploiting plant beneficial microbes,” Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.pbi.2017.04.018.

W. R. Chezem, A. Memon, F. S. Li, J. K. Weng, and N. K. Clay, “SG2-type R2R3-MYB transcription factor MYB15 controls defense-induced lignification and basal immunity in arabidopsis,” Plant Cell, 2017, doi: 10.1105/tpc.16.00954.

S. C. Bhatla, M. A. Lal, M. A. Lal, R. Kathpalia, R. Sisodia, and R. Shakya, “Biotic Stress,” in Plant Physiology, Development and Metabolism, 2018.

Z. Ahmad, J. Wu, L. Chen, and W. Dong, “Isolated Bacillus subtilis strain 330-2 and its antagonistic genes identified by the removing PCR,” Sci. Rep., 2017, doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-01940-9.

C. J. R. Cumagun, “Host-Parasite Interaction During Development of Major Seed-Borne Fungal Diseases BT - Seed-Borne Diseases of Agricultural Crops: Detection, Diagnosis & Management,” R. Kumar and A. Gupta, Eds. Singapore: Springer Singapore, 2020, pp. 233–244.

R. Suharjo et al., “Peronosclerospora australiensis is a synonym of P. maydis, which is widespread on Sumatra, and distinct from the most prevalent Java maize downy mildew pathogen,” Mycol. Prog., vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 1309–1315, 2020, doi: 10.1007/s11557-020-01628-x.

E. Lamalakshmi Devi et al., “Adaptation strategies and defence mechanisms of plants during environmental stress,” in Medicinal Plants and Environmental Challenges, 2017.

A. K. Saxena, M. Kumar, H. Chakdar, N. Anuroopa, and D. J. Bagyaraj, “Bacillus species in soil as a natural resource for plant health and nutrition,” Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol. 128, no. 6. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, pp. 1583–1594, Jun-2020, doi: 10.1111/jam.14506.

H. Gao, P. Li, X. Xu, Q. Zeng, and W. Guan, “Research on volatile organic compounds from Bacillus subtilis CF-3: Biocontrol effects on fruit fungal pathogens and dynamic changes during fermentation,” Front. Microbiol., vol. 9, no. MAR, Mar. 2018, doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.00456.

T. Stein, “Bacillus subtilis antibiotics: Structures, syntheses and specific functions,” Molecular Microbiology. 2005, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2005.04587.x.

P. Mülner et al., “Profiling for Bioactive Peptides and Volatiles of Plant Growth Promoting Strains of the Bacillus subtilis Complex of Industrial Relevance,” Front. Microbiol., vol. 11, no. June, 2020, doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.01432.

N. Djaenuddin, Suriani, and A. Muis, “Effectiveness of Bacillus subtilis TM4 biopesticide formulation as biocontrol agent against maydis leaf blight disease on corn,” IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci., vol. 484, no. 1, 2020, doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/484/1/012096.

S. Tao, Z. Wu, M. Wei, X. Liu, and Y. He, “Bacillus subtilis SL-13 biochar formulation promotes pepper plant 2 growth and soil improvement,” Can. J. Microbiol. Can. J. Microbiol, 2019.

N. Ghazy and S. El-Nahrawy, “Siderophore production by Bacillus subtilis MF497446 and Pseudomonas koreensis MG209738 and their efficacy in controlling Cephalosporium maydis in maize plant,” Arch. Microbiol., no. 0123456789, 2020, doi: 10.1007/s00203-020-02113-5.

L. L. B. Lobo, R. M. dos Santos, and E. C. Rigobelo, “Promotion of maize growth using endophytic bacteria under greenhouse and field conditions,” Aust. J. Crop Sci., vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 2067–2074, 2019, doi: 10.21475/ajcs.19.13.12.p2077.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18517/ijaseit.11.6.12447

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.



Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development