Effect of Microwave Pretreatment on Some Properties of Bamboo (Gigantochloa apus) for Bioethanol Production

Andre Fahriz Perdana Harahap, Yuli Amalia Husnil, Muhammad Yusuf Arya Ramadhan, Muhamad Sahlan, Heri Hermansyah, Bambang Prasetya, Misri Gozan

Abstract


Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass plays an essential role in bioethanol production as an alternative biofuel. This process reduces biomass recalcitrance in order to improve cellulose digestibility for saccharification and further fermentation reactions. In this study, microwave (MW) pretreatment was done on bamboo (Gigantochloa apus) to investigate the resulting physicochemical properties and bioethanol produced. Bamboo was irradiated in the microwave at different power (100-600 Watt) and irradiation time (5-20 minutes) followed by Water Soluble content (WSC) and lignin analysis. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using cellulase enzyme was also done in five different treatment combinations (C1-C5) to investigate the effect of produced reducing sugar and bioethanol. The result shows that increasing MW power and irradiation time could decrease WSC gradually. The lowest WSC of 0.3% was obtained at 600-Watt MW power and 20 minutes irradiation time. Lignin content decreased from 18.9% to 16.0% concerning increasing irradiation time from 5 to 20 minutes under 300-Watt MW power. SEM images show that partial disruption and micro-scale pores existed in pretreated samples. The highest amount of ethanol was obtained at 24 hours fermentation for pretreated bamboo at 300-Watt MW power for 15 minutes followed by cellulase enzyme addition. The overall results showed that microwave pretreatment is a prospective method for future bioethanol production from bamboo due to effective WSC reduction and lignin degradation in a relatively short period of time.

Keywords


Bamboo (Gigantochloa apus); bioethanol; lignin; microwave pretreatment; reducing sugar; water soluble content.

Full Text:

PDF

References


J. A. León et al., “Renewable energy integration: Economic assessment of solar energy to produce biodiesel at supercritical conditions,” Int. J. Photoenergy, 2018, doi: 10.1155/2018/8769582.

J. Ruchala, O. O. Kurylenko, K. V. Dmytruk, and A. A. Sibirny, “Construction of advanced producers of first- and second-generation ethanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and selected species of non-conventional yeasts (Scheffersomyces stipitis, Ogataea polymorpha),” J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 2020, doi: 10.1007/s10295-019-02242-x.

M. Gozan, A. F. Harahap, C. P. Bakti, and S. Setyahadi, “Optimization of cellulase production by bacillus sp. BPPT CC RK2 with pH and temperature variation using response surface methodology,” E3S Web Conf., 2018, doi: 10.1051/e3sconf/20186702051.

A. F. P. Harahap, J. R. H. Panjaitan, C. A. Curie, M. Y. A. Ramadhan, P. Srinophakun, and M. Gozan, “Techno-economic evaluation of hand sanitiser production using oil palm empty fruit bunch-based bioethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process,” Appl. Sci., 2020, doi: 10.3390/app10175987.

M. Lobovikov, S. Paudel, M. Piazza, H. Ren, and J. Wu, “World bamboo resources: A thematic study prepared in the framework of the Global Forest Resources, assessment 2005,” FAO Tech. Pap., 2007.

R. Sharma, J. Wahono, and H. Baral, “Bamboo as an alternative bioenergy crop and powerful ally for land restoration in Indonesia,” Sustainability (Switzerland). 2018, doi: 10.3390/su10124367.

W. Leenakul and N. Tippayawong, “Dilute Acid Pretreatment of Bamboo for Fermentable Sugar Production,” J. Sustain. Energy Environ., 2010.

Z. Yuan, Y. Wen, N. S. Kapu, R. Beatson, and D. Mark Martinez, “A biorefinery scheme to fractionate bamboo into high-grade dissolving pulp and ethanol,” Biotechnol. Biofuels, 2017, doi: 10.1186/s13068-017-0723-2.

H. Yang, Y. Jin, Z. Shi, D. Wang, P. Zhao, and J. Yang, “Effect of hydrothermal pretreated bamboo lignin on cellulose saccharification for bioethanol production,” Ind. Crops Prod., 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2020.112865.

Y. Song, Y. Gyo Lee, E. Jin Cho, and H. J. Bae, “Production of xylose, xylulose, xylitol, and bioethanol from waste bamboo using hydrogen peroxicde-acetic acid pretreatment,” Fuel, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2020.118247.

M. Gozan, J. R. H. Panjaitan, D. Tristantini, R. Alamsyah, and Y. J. Yoo, “Evaluation of Separate and Simultaneous Kinetic Parameters for Levulinic Acid and Furfural Production from Pretreated Palm Oil Empty Fruit Bunches,” Int. J. Chem. Eng., 2018, doi: 10.1155/2018/1920180.

A. A. Rahman, A. F. P. Harahap, I. N. Sadrina, and M. Gozan, “Optimization of microwave assisted dilute ammonia pretreatment of oil palm empty fruit bunch using response surface methodology,” 2019, doi: 10.1088/1757-899X/673/1/012009.

N. Bhardwaj, B. Kumar, and P. Verma, “Microwave-assisted pretreatment using alkali metal salt in combination with orthophosphoric acid for generation of enhanced sugar and bioethanol,” Biomass Convers. Biorefinery, 2020, doi: 10.1007/s13399-020-00640-1.

A. F. P. Harahap, A. A. Rahman, I. N. Sadrina, and M. Gozan, “Optimization of pretreatment conditions for microwave-assisted alkaline delignification of empty fruit bunch by response surface methodology,” Int. J. Technol., 2019, doi: 10.14716/ijtech.v10i8.3431.

Z. Li, Z. Jiang, B. Fei, Y. Yu, and Z. Cai, “Effective of Microwave-KOH Pretreatment on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Bamboo,” J. Sustain. Bioenergy Syst., 2012, doi: 10.4236/jsbs.2012.24015.

B. Zhao and S. Hu, “Promotional effects of water-soluble extractives on bamboo cellulose enzymolysis,” BioResources, 2019, doi: 10.15376/biores.14.3.5109-5120.

P. J. Kaur, K. K. Pant, and G. Kaushik, “Properties and Importance of Various Bamboo Species for Multi-Utility Applications,” in Sustainable Agriculture, Forest and Environmental Management, 2019.

B. Frankó, K. Carlqvist, M. Galbe, G. Lidén, and O. Wallberg, “Removal of Water-Soluble Extractives Improves the Enzymatic Digestibility of Steam-Pretreated Softwood Barks,” Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 2018, doi: 10.1007/s12010-017-2577-2.

A. F. P. Harahap, M. Y. A. Ramadhan, W. C. Lee, and M. Gozan, “Preliminary plant design of thermochemical conversion for rice straw- based second-generation bioethanol production in West Java Preliminary plant design of thermochemical conversion for rice straw-based second-generation bioethanol production in West Jav,” 2020, doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/599/1/012004.

A. F. P. Harahap, M. Y. A. Ramadhan, M. Sahlan, H. Hermansyah, A. M. Roslan, and M. Gozan, “Economic evaluation of thermochemical conversion for rice straw-based second-generation bioethanol production in West Java Economic evaluation of thermochemical conversion for rice straw-based second-generation bioethanol production in West Java,” 2020, doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/599/1/012006.

Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry, “TAPPI T 222: Acid-insoluble lignin in wood and pulp,” 2011.

C. Hatanaka and Y. Kobara, “Determination of Glucose by a Modification of Somogyi-Nelson Method,” Agric. Biol. Chem., 1980, doi: 10.1271/bbb1961.44.2943.

W. Fatriasari, W. Syafii, N. Wistara, K. Syamsu, and B. Prasetya, “Lignin and cellulose changes of betung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper) pretreated microwave heating,” Int. J. Adv. Sci. Eng. Inf. Technol., 2016, doi: 10.18517/ijaseit.6.2.688.

Z. Hu and Z. Wen, “Enhancing enzymatic digestibility of switchgrass by microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment,” Biochem. Eng. J., 2008, doi: 10.1016/j.bej.2007.08.001.

R. Singh, S. Tiwari, M. Srivastava, and A. Shukla, “Microwave Assisted Alkali Pretreatment of Rice Straw for Enhancing Enzymatic Digestibility,” J. Energy, 2014, doi: 10.1155/2014/483813.

A. B. Akinyemi, E. T. Omoniyi, and G. Onuzulike, “Effect of microwave assisted alkali pretreatment and other pretreatment methods on some properties of bamboo fibre reinforced cement composites,” Constr. Build. Mater., 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2020.118405.

L. Dai et al., “Comparative study on microwave and conventional hydrothermal pretreatment of bamboo sawdust: Hydrochar properties and its pyrolysis behaviors,” Energy Convers. Manag., 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.enconman.2017.05.007.

P. T. Vu, Y. Unpaprom, and R. Ramaraj, “Impact and significance of alkaline-oxidant pretreatment on the enzymatic digestibility of Sphenoclea zeylanica for bioethanol production,” Bioresour. Technol., 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2017.09.012.

A. Gul, M. Irfan, M. Nadeem, Q. Syed, and I. ul Haq, “Kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca L. Kunth) as a feedstock for ethanol fermentation with the aid of response surface methodology,” Environ. Prog. Sustain. Energy, 2018, doi: 10.1002/ep.12701.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18517/ijaseit.11.6.12156

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.



Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development