Organoleptic, Chemical, and Physical Characteristics of Sago (Metroxylon spp.) Analog Rice Supplemented with Red Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Flour as a Functional Food

Sri Budi Wahjuningsih, Y Marsono, Danar Praseptiangga, Bambang Haryanto, Mita Nurul Azkia

Abstract


Sago analog rice is rice made from sago starch with or without supplementation of other food materials, and its shape resembles that of rice. Red bean flour is added to analog rice to increase its protein content to levels comparable to those of rice. The objective of this research is to investigate the organoleptic preference of panelists, and the chemical and physical characteristics of sago analog rice supplemented with red bean flour. We used a completely randomized design with one factor: the supplementation of red bean flour at 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%. Our organoleptic test applied for the hedonic scale and examined the aroma, taste, and texture of cooked sago analog rice; the observed chemical characteristics were water, ash, fat, protein, and starch content. Physical characteristics were cooking time, water content, the weight of water loss, water absorbability, and granule characteristics. Data were analyzed using the analysis of variance. When results were significantly variable, the analysis was followed by the Duncan multiple range tests (DMRT) at the significance level of α < 5%. Our results show that supplementation of red bean flour up to 10% resulted in hedonic values ranging from “like” to “quite like” for taste and aroma, and “like” for texture; BS100 analog rice had the highest hedonic value. The water content of sago rice and the weight of water loss of cooked sago rice did not show a significant difference. In addition, ash content, protein content, fat content, starch content, cooking time, and water content of cooked sago rice displayed significant differences. A higher supplementation of red bean flour to sago rice influences granule structure, which appears damaged with rough surfaces and high porosity. Moreover, the size of the granules is smaller.


Keywords


sago; Metroxylon spp; analog rice; red bean; extrusion.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Central Bureau of Statistics. (2017) Study of Consumption of Staples in 2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.bps.go.id/. In Bahasa Indonesia.

Samad, “Pembuatan Beras Tiruan (Artificial Rice) dengan Bahan Baku Ubi Kayu dan Sagu,” Prosiding Seminar Teknologi untuk Negeri (BPPT) Jakarta, pp. 36 – 40, 2003. In Bahasa Indonesia.

[DEPTAN] Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Indonesia, “General guidelines for diversifying food consumption in 2011,” Jakarta: Ministry of Agriculture's Food Security Agency, 2011. In Bahasa Indonesia.

[DitjenbunKementan] Directorate General of Plantation, Ministry of Agriculture, “Annual Increase in Production, Productivity and Quality of Sago Plant Technical Guidelines”, Jakarta, 2013. In Bahasa Indonesia.

Sumaryono. “Tanaman sagu sebagai sumber energy alternative,” Warta Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian, 29:4, 2007. In Bahasa Indonesia.

Zi-Ni, T., Rosma, A., Karim, A.A. danLiong, M.T, “Functional Properties of Resistant Starch Type-III from Metroxylon sagu as Affected by Processing Conditions,” Jurnal Tropical Agricultural Science, 38 (3), pp. 399-412, 2015.

Wahjuningsih, S.B. and Kurnarto B, “Study on Addition of Prickly to Accelerate Natural Fermentation Time in Making Analog Rice,” Competitive Grant Research Report. Department of Agricultural Product Technology, Faculty of Agriculture Technology, University of Semarang, 11 (2), pp.127-243, 2013. In Bahasa Indonesia.

Riaz, M.N, “Introduction to Extruders and Their Principles. ExrtrudersIn Food Applications,” pp. 1-4. US: CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2000.

Camire, M., Dougherty, M and Briggs, J, “Functionality of fruit powders in extruded corn breakfast cereals,” Food Chem. 101, pp. 765–770, 2007.

Koide, K., Fukushima, T., Tomita, T., Kuwata, T, “Fabricated rice,” U.S patent, Japan, Meiji Milk Products, Co., Ltd. 5.932.271, 1999.

Zhuang , H., An , A., Chen , H., Xie, Z., Zhao, J., Xu , X., Jin, Z, “Effect of Extrusion Parameters on Physicochemical Properties of Hybrid Indica Rice (Type 9718) Extrudates,” Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 34(6), pp. 1080–1102, 2010.

Budi, F.S., Hariyadi, P., Budijanto, S. and Syah, D, “Effect of dough moisture content and extrusion temperature on degree of gelatinization and crystallinity of rice analogues,” Journal of Development in Suitanable Agriculture, 10, pp. 91-100, 2015.

Wahjuningsih, S.B. and Haslina, “Kajian Pengembangan Beras Analog Berbasis Tepung Mokaf, Tepung Garut dan Tepung Kacang Merah’” Proseding Seminar Nasional dan Pameran Produk Pangan, Perhimpunan Ahli Teknologi Pangan Indonesia (PATPI), pp. 888-901, 2015.

Haliza, W., E.Y. Purwani, and S. Yuliani, “Evaluasi kadar pati tahan cerna dan nilai indeks glikemik mi sagu,” Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan XVII (2), pp. 149-152, 2006.

Alfons, A. J. B. and Rivaie, A.A, “Sagu mendukung ketahanan pangan dalam menghadapi dampak perubahan iklim,” Journal Perspektif 10(2), pp. 81-91, 2011.

Prabawati, S. and Suismono, “Mendongkrak pemanfaatan sumber pangan dengan sentuhan teknologi,” Warta Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian, 27:6, 2005.

Rahayu, W.P, “Penuntun Praktikum Penilaian Organoleptik,” Jurusan Teknologi Pangan dan Gizi, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor, 2001.

Noviasari, S., Feri, K andSlamet, B, “Pengembangan Beras Analog Dengan Memanfaatkan Jagung Putih,” J. Teknol. dan Industri Pangan 24 (2), pp. 194-200, 2013.

Sathe, S. K. and D. K. Salunkhe, “Isolation Partion, Characterization and Modification of The Great Northem Bean (Phaseulus vulgaris) Starch,” Jurnal Food Science, 46 (2), pp. 617-621, 1981.

Goldstein, J. L., Newbury, D. E., Echilin, P., Joy, D. C., Jr. A. D. R., Lyman, C.E., Flori, C andLifshin, E, “Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Rays Microanali,” 1992.

(AOAC) Association of Official Analytical Chemists, “Official Methods of Analysis of The Association of Official Agriculture Chemist (sixteenth edition),” Virginia, 2006.

Wahjuningsih, S.B., Marsono, Danar, P., Bambang, H, “A Study of Sago Starch and Red Bean Flour-Based Analog Rice Development as Functional Food,” Proceedings on the 3rd International Conference on Agricultural and Food Engineering, 23-25 Agustus 2016, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2016.

Sessa, D. J. and Rackis, J. J, “Lipid derived flavors of legume protein products,” J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 54, pp. 468-473, 1977.

Xiaodi, S., Jingyan, L., Shuming, W., Lei, Z., Lijuan, Q., Tianfu, H., Qianyu, W., Kow-Ching, C.S and Shuntang, G, “Flavor characteristic analysis of soymilk prepared by different soybean cultivars and establishment of evaluation method of soybean cultivars suitable for soymilk processing,” Food Chemistry, 2015.

Jiang, Z., Marjo, P., Yu-jie, W., Anna-Maija, L., Fred, L. S., Hannu, S., Vieno, P and Tuula, S.S, “Faba bean flavor and technological property improvement by thermal pre-treatments,” LWT-Food Science and Technology. 68, pp. 295-305, 2016.

Furia, E. T, “Handbook of Food Additives Volume 1-2,” CRC Press: Boca Raton, 1980.

Behall, K.M. and J. Hallfrisch, “Plasma Glucose and Insulin Reduction After Consumption of Bread Varying in Amilose Content,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 56, pp. 913-920, 2002.

Camire, M. E and Flint, S. I, Thermal processing effects on dietary fibre composition and hydration capacity in corn meal, oat meal and potato peels,” Cereal Chem. 68(6), pp. 645–647, 1991.

Kurachi, H, “Process for Producing Artifical Rice,” U.S. Patent No: 5403606, 1995.

Hayat, A. A., Ahmed, A., Khalil, S. and Gulfras, M, “Exploring the Potential of Red Kidney Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L) to Develop Protein Based Product for Food Applications,” The Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences. 24(3), pp. 860-868, 2014.

Uthumporn, U., Wahidah, N. and Karim, A.A, “Physicochemical Properties of Starch from Sago (MetroxylonSagu) Palm Grown In Mineral Soil At Different Growth Stages,” IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 62. 012026, 2014.

Muslikatin, “The Making of Extruction Rice with Adding of Seaweed Extract”, Skripsi, IPB: Bogor, 2011. In Bahasa Indonesia

Audu, S.S. and Aremu, M.O, “Effect of Processing on Chemical Composition of Red Kidney Bean Flour (Phaseolus vulgaris L),” Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 10(11), pp. 1069-1075, 2011.

Permana, R. A. and Putri W. D. R, “Pengaruh Proporsi Jagung dan Kacang Merah Serta Subtitusi Bekatul Terhadap Karakteristik Fisik Kimia Flakes” Jurnal Pangan Agroindustri 3 (2), pp. 734-742, 2015. In Bahasa Indonesia.

Sajilata, M.G., R.S. Singhal, P.R. Kulkarni, “Resistant Starch – a Review,” Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, Vol. 5, 2006.

Nazrah, Julianti E., Masniary, L. L, “Pengaruh Modifikasi Fisik Terhadap Karakteristik Pati dan Produksi Pati Resisten dari Empat Varietas Ubi Kayu (Manihot esculent),” Jurnal Rekayasa Pangan dan Pertanian 2 (2), pp. 1-9, 2014. In Bahasa Indonesia.

Hariyadi, P, “Mempelajari kinetika gelatinisasi sagu (Metroxylonsp),” Institut Pertanian Bogor, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Skripsi, 1984. In Bahasa Indonesia.

Anonymous, “Penelitian Pemanfaatan Sagu Sebagai Bahan Pembuatan Makanan,” Laporan Akhir, Kerjasama BPPT dengan Pusat Pengembangan Teknologi Pangan IPB, Bogor, 1987. In Bahasa Indonesia.

Gomes Luciana de Oliveira Froes, Raquel de Andrade Cardoso Santiago, Ana Vania Carvalho, RosangelaNunesCarvalho, Iana Gabriela de Oliveira and Priscila ZaczukBassinello, “Application of extruded broken bean flour for formulation of gluten-free cake blends,” Food Sci. Technol, Campinas. 35(2), pp. 307-313, 2015.

Calixto, F. S. andAbia, R, “Resistant Starch: an indigestible fraction of foods”. 42(3): 239-242, 1991.

Flach, M, “The Sago Palm: Domestication Exploitation and Products,” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 1983.

Wirakartakusumah, M.A., Eriyatno, S., Fardiaz, M., Thenawidjaja, D., Muchtadi, B.S.L., Jenie, and Machfud, “Studi Tentang Ekstraksi, Sifat-SifatFisiko Kimia Pati Sagu dan Pengkajian Enzima,” Dirjen Dikti, Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, 1984.

Hoseney, R. C, “Principles of Cereal Science and Technology, 2nd ed,” American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc. St. Paul, Minnesota, pp. 378, 1998.

Dhital, S., A.K. Shrestha,and M.J. Gidley, “Relationship between granule size and in vitro digestibility of maize and potato starches,” Carbohydrate Polymers 82(2), pp. 480-488, 2010.

Jading, A., Eduard, T., Paulus, P. and G. Sarman, “Karakteristik Fisikokimia Pati Sagu Hasil Pengeringan Secara Fluidisasi Menggunakan Alat Pengering Cross Flow Fluidized Bed Bertenaga Surya Dan Biomassa,” Jurusan Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Negeri Papua, 2011. In Bahasa Indonesia.

Tharanathan, R. N. and Mahadevamma, S, “Grain legumes: A boon to human nutrition,” Trends in Food Science and Technology 14, pp. 507-518, 2003.

Banks, W., Greenwood, C.T. and Muir, D.D, “The Structure of Starch,” Molecular Structure and Functions of Food Carbohydrate, London (UK): Applied Sci. Publ. Ltd., 1973.

Suarni, “Produk makanan ringan (flakes) berbasis jagung dan kacang hijau sebagai sumber protein untuk perbaikan gizi anak usia tumbuh,” Prosiding Seminar Nasional Serealia, pp. 304, 2009. In Bahasa Indonesia.

Juliano, B.O. and Kongseree, “Physic Chemical Properties of Rice Grain and Starch from line differing in amilosacontentand gelatinization temperature,” J. Agric and Food Chem., 20 (3), pp. 714-718, 1968.

Govindasamy, S., Oates, C. G. and Wong, H. A, Characterisation of changes of sago starchcomponents during hydrolysis by a thermostable alpha-amylase,” Carbohydr Polym. 18, pp. 89–100, 1992.

Azmi, Azlin & Malek, M & Mohamad Puad, Noor Illi.. A review on acid and enzymatic hydrolyses of sago starch. International Food Research Journal. 24, pp 265-273, 2017.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18517/ijaseit.10.3.11098

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.



Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development