Performance Evaluation of Portable Hot Water Jet for Frozen Meat Industry Application

Nurul Izzah Khalid, Norashikin Ab. Aziz, Farah Saleena Taip

Abstract


High temperature-induced water jet has important cleaning factors for effective cleaning at food industries because it can provide mechanical, heat, and chemical effects during cleaning. It can also reduce cleaning time, labor load, and utility consumptions, hence reducing the operating costs and enhance sustainability. However, it has not been used widely in small and medium food industries due to a lack of cleaning awareness and small budget allocation for cleaning and disinfection. In this article, we evaluated the performance of a portable water jet in the laboratory before it was introduced to the frozen meat industry. Removal of invisible fat-based fouling deposits which remained on the surfaces of the meat processing equipment is quite a challenge. In this work, stainless steel surfaces were fouled with the fat-based fouling deposit. The fouled stainless-steel surfaces were used for the cleanability tests. The tests were conducted at different parameters which were cleaning parameters (temperature (35 °C and 65 °C) and cleaning detergent presence), cleaning operations (nozzle distances (5 cm and 30 cm)) and surface geometries (vertical and horizontal) which representing the different equipment’s geometry. Physical cleanliness (visual and touch) and protein residue swab test was used as the cleaning indicators. The target cleanliness was achieved at a high cleaning temperature of 65°C and with the presence of cleaning detergent. Results from these tests will be used as a guide to design an optimal cleaning program for SMEs frozen meat patty factory.

Keywords


cleaning-out-place (COP); manual cleaning; sanitation program; fouling deposit; high-pressure cleaning; food industry.

Full Text:

PDF

References


N. I. Khalid, N. Nordin, Z. Y. Chia, N. Ab Aziz, A. A. Nuraini, F. S. Taip, and A. Ahmedov, “A removal kinetics approach for evaluation of economic cleaning protocols for pink guava puree fouling deposit,” J. Clean. Prod., vol. 135, pp. 1317–1326, 2016.

H. Köhler, H. Stoye, M. Mauermann, T. Weyrauch, and J. P. Majschak, “How to assess cleaning? Evaluating the cleaning performance of moving impinging jets,” Food Bioprod. Process, vol. 93, pp. 327–332, 2015.

N. Z. Noor Hasnan, N. Ab. Aziz, N. Zulkifli, and F. S. Taip, “Food Factory Design: Reality and Challenges Faced by Malaysian SMEs,” Agric. Agric. Sci. Procedia, vol. 2, pp. 328–336, 2014.

M. R. Bird, and S. W. P. Espig, “Cost Optimisation of dairy cleaning in place (CIP) cycles,” Inst. Chem. Eng, vol. 72, pp. 17–20, 1994.

(2020) Cleaning and Disinfection in Food Processing Operations. [Online]. Available: https://safefood360.com/resources/Cleaning.pdf.

W. Liu, P. J. Fryer, Z. Zhang, Q. Zhao, and Y. Liu, “Identification of cohesive and adhesive effects in the cleaning of food fouling deposits,” Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, vol. 7, pp. 263–269, 2006.

W. Liu, Z. Zhang, and P. J. Fryer, “Identification and modeling of different removal modes in the cleaning of a model food deposit,” Chemical Engineering Science, vol. 61, pp. 7528 – 7534, 2006.

C. R. Gillham, P. J. Fryer, A. P. M. Hasting, and D. I. Wilson, “Cleaning-in-Place of Whey Protein fouling Deposits: Mechanisms Controlling Cleaning. Food and Bioproducts Processing,” vol. 77(2), pp. 127–136, 1999.

C. R. Gillham, P. J. Fryer, A. P. M. Hasting, and D. I. Wilson, “Enhanced cleaning of whey protein soils using pulsed flows,” Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 46, pp. 199–209, 2000.

N. I. Khalid, U. S. Saulaiman, N. Ab Aziz, N. A. Nasiruddin, M. M. Hatdran, M. A. Nor Khaizura, N. Z. N. Hasnan, S. Sobri, and F. S. Taip, “Challenges in cleaning for frozen food SMEs: Current and suggested cleaning program,” J. Clean. Prod., vol. 235, pp. 688-700, 2019.

Y. H. Hui, Sanitation Performance Standards, 2nd ed., Y. H. Hui, Ed., Handbook of Meat and Meat Processing. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press Taylor and Francis Group, 2012.

J. Piepiorka-Stepuk, J. Diakun, and S. Mierzejewska, “Poly-optimization of cleaning conditions for pipe systems and plate heat exchangers contaminated with hot milk using the Cleaning in Place method,” J. Clean. Prod., vol. 112, pp. 946–952, 2016.

J. M. Vicaria, E. Jurado-Alameda, O. Herrera-Márquez, V. Olivares-Arias, and A. Ávila-Sierra, “Analysis of different protocols for the cleaning of corn starch adhering to stainless steel,” J. Clean. Prod., vol. 168, pp. 87–96, 2017.

A. J. D. Romney, CIP: Cleaning in Place. London, UK: Society of Dairy Technology ,1990.

G. Etienne, Principles of Cleaning and Sanitation in the Food and Beverage Industry. USA: iUniverse, 2006.

A. L. Ho, V. C. Tan, N. Ab. Aziz, F. S. Taip, and M. N. Ibrahim, “Pink Guava Juice Pasteurisation : Fouling Deposit and cleaning studies,” J. - Inst. Eng. Malaysia, vol. 71, pp. 50–62, 2010.

H. Y. Law, C. I. Ong, N. Ab. Aziz, F. S. Taip, and N. Muda, “Preliminary Work on Coconut Milk Fouling Deposits Study,” International Journal of Engineering & Technology, vol. 9, pp. 18–23 2009.

C. Lelièvre, G. Antonini, C. Faille, and T. Bénézech, “Cleaning-in-Place: Modelling of Cleaning Kinetics of Pipes Soiled by Bacillus Spores Assuming a Process Combining Removal and Deposition,” Food Bioprod. Process, vol. 80, pp. 305–311, 2002.

M. Walton, Principles of cleaning-in-place (CIP), 3rd ed., A. Y. Tamime, Ed., Cleaning in Place: Dairy, Food and Beverages Operation. Oxford, U.K: Blackwell Publishing, 2008.

T. Wang, J. F. Davidson, and D. I. Wilson, “Flow patterns and cleaning behaviour of horizontal liquid jets impinging on angled walls,” Food Bioprod. Process., vol. 93, pp. 333–342, 2015.

M. C. Leu, P. Meng, E. S. Geskin, and L. Tismeneskiy, “Mathematical Modeling and Experimental Verification of Stationary Waterjet Cleaning Process,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., vol. 120, pp. 571–579, 1998.

P. Meng, E. S. Geskin, M. C. Leu, and L. Tismeneskiy, “An Analytical and Experimental Study of Cleaning with Moving Waterjets,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., vol. 120, pp. 580–589, 1998.

T. Bénézech, C. Lelièvre, J. M. Membré, A.-F. Viet, and C. Faille, “A new test method for in-place cleanability of food processing equipment,” J. Food Eng., vol. 54, pp. 7–15, 2002.

N. I. Khalid, N. Nordin, A. A. Nuraini, N. Ab. Aziz, F. S., Taip, and M. S. Anuar, “Design of a Test Rig for Cleaning Studies and Evaluation of Laboratory-Scale Experiments Using Pink Guava Puree as a Fouling Deposit Model,” J. Food Process Eng., vol. 38, pp. 583–593, 2015.

C. Lelievre, C. Faille, and T. Benezech, “Removal Kinetics of Bacillus Cereus Spores from Stainless Steel Pipes Under Cip Procedure: Influence of Soiling and Cleaning Conditions,” J. Food Process Eng., vol. 24, pp. 359–379, 2001.

M.R. Luo, “The quality of light sources,” Coloration Technology, vol. 127, pp. 75–87, 2011.

N. I. Khalid, N. Ab Aziz, A. A. Nuraini, F. S. Taip, and M. S. Anuar, “Alkaline Cleaning-in-Place of Pink Guava Puree Fouling Deposit Using Lab-scale Cleaning Test Rig,” Agric. Agric. Sci. Procedia, vol. 2, pp. 280–288, 2014.

W. J. Watkinson, Chemistry of Detergents and Disinfectants, 3rd ed., A. Y. Tamime, Ed., Cleaning in Place: Dairy, Food and Beverages Operation. Oxford, U.K: Blackwell Publishing, 2008.

M. C. Leu, P. Meng, E. S. Geskin, and L. Tismeneskiy, “Mathematical Modeling and Experimental Verification of Stationary Waterjet Cleaning Process,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., vol. 120, pp. 571–579, 1998.

P. Meng, E. S. Geskin, M. C. Leu, and L. Tismeneskiy, “An Analytical and Experimental Study of Cleaning with Moving Waterjets,”. J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., vol. 120, pp. 580–589, 1998.

H. Köhler, H. Stoye, M. Mauermann, and J. Majschak, “Optimization approach for efficient cleaning with impinging jets – Influence of nozzle diameter, pressure and nozzle distance,” in Proc. of International Conference on Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning 2013, 2013, pp. 421–428.

M. Stanga, Sanitation: Cleaning and Disinfection in the Food Industry, 1st ed. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH, 2010.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18517/ijaseit.10.3.10998

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.



Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development