A Domain-Specific Modelling Language for Adventure Educational Games and Flow Theory
Designing educational games is a complex task and needs collaboration between game developers and an educator. Domain-Specific Modeling Language (DSML) offers an approach to simplify the design activities of educational games and support the involvement of both game developers and educators. This paper presents an extension of Serious Game Logic and Structure Modeling Language (GLiSMo), a DSML that designs the logical and structural views of educational adventure games. The gap in the original GLiSMo is that it did not allow an educational game to be designed according to any learning theories. Furthermore, the original GLiSMo does not cover all concepts in the adventure genre. The authors intend to extend the original GLiSMo by adding the concepts of Flow Theory and concepts of the adventure genre to make it more expressive. The extended DSML is called FA-GLiSMo. The authors evaluated the expressiveness of FA-GLiSMo using Framework for Qualitative Assessment of DSLs (FQAD). The result shows that the expressiveness of FA-GLiSMo is still ‘incomplete’ due to the lack of clarity of semantics for several domain concepts. Improvements were performed, and the finalized FA-GLiSMo now has fifteen (15) concepts of the Logic diagram, nineteen (19) concepts of the Structure diagram, and a new diagram called the Flow diagram containing five (5) concepts of the Flow Theory. The authors also demonstrate in this paper the concrete syntax of FA-GLiSMo using the Tales of Monkey Island game as a case study.
E. Bousse, T. Mayerhofer, B. Combemale, and B. Baudry, “Advanced and efficient execution trace management for executable domain-specific modeling languages,” Softw. Syst. Model., 2019.
G. Kardas, B. T. Tezel, and M. Challenger, “Domain-specific modelling language for belief–desire–intention software agents,” IET Softw., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 356–364, Aug. 2018.
M. Aslam, L. bin AB Rahim, M. Hashmani, and J. Watada, “Domain specific modelling language of PIM for OSSS on infrastructure cloud service model,” in 2018 4th International Conference on Computer and Information Sciences (ICCOINS), 2018, pp. 1–6.
F. Santos, I. Nunes, and A. L. C. Bazzan, “Model-driven agent-based simulation development: A modeling language and empirical evaluation in the adaptive traffic signal control domain,” Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory, vol. 83, pp. 162–187, Apr. 2018.
A. S. Zahari, L. Ab. Rahim, and M. Mehat, “A review of modelling languages for adventure educational games,” in 2016 3rd International Conference on Computer and Information Sciences (ICCOINS), 2016, pp. 495–500.
S. I. Wang, P. Liang, and C. D. Manning, “Learning Language Games through Interaction,” in Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers), 2016.
E. A. Boyle et al., “An update to the systematic literature review of empirical evidence of the impacts and outcomes of computer games and serious games,” Comput. Educ., 2016.
F. Van Broeckhoven and O. De Troyer, “Specifying the Pedagogical Aspects of Narrative-Based Digital Learning Games Using Annotations,” Proc. 9th Int. Conf. Found. Digit. Games, 2014.
J. Kirriemuir and A. McFarlane, “Literature Review in Games and Learning,” A NESTA Futur. Res. Rep. - Rep. 8. 2004., 2004.
N. H. Mat Zain, H. Zaini, M. N. Zulhemay, A. Baharum, W. F. Bustamam, and F. H. Abdul Razak, “Engaging game design in learning historical patriotic heroes: Students’ perceptions,” Pertanika J. Sci. Technol., 2017.
J. Reinhardt, “Digital Gaming in L2 Teaching and Learning,” in The Handbook of Technology and Second Language Teaching and Learning, 2017.
L. Harasim and L. Harasim, “Constructivist Learning Theory,” in Learning Theory and Online Technologies, 2018.
M. Mernik, “Domain-specific languages: A systematic mapping study,” in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 2017.
J. C. Sánchez-Prieto, S. Olmos-Migueláñez, and F. J. García-Peñalvo, “Informal tools in formal contexts: Development of a model to assess the acceptance of mobile technologies among teachers,” Comput. Human Behav., 2016.
D. Drummond, A. Hadchouel, and A. Tesnière, “Serious games for health: three steps forwards,” Adv. Simul., 2017.
M. W. Aziz and M. Rashid, “Domain specific modeling language for cyber physical systems,” in Proceedings - 2016 International Conference on Information Systems Engineering, ICISE 2016, 2016.
J. Kasurinen, M. Palacin-Silva, and E. Vanhala, “What Concerns Game Developers? A Study on Game Development Processes, Sustainability and Metrics,” in International Workshop on Emerging Trends in Software Metrics, WETSoM, 2017.
M. Challenger, G. Kardas, and B. Tekinerdogan, “A systematic approach to evaluating domain-specific modeling language environments for multi-agent systems,” Softw. Qual. J., 2016.
J. Dobbe, “A domain-specific language for computer games,” Delft Univ. Technol. Delft, Netherlands, 2007.
L. Nadolny, Z. Alaswad, D. Culver, and W. Wang, “Designing With Game-Based Learning: Game Mechanics From Middle School to Higher Education,” Simul. Gaming, 2017.
S. Abdelali, S. Mateu, B. Imma, E. Fatiha, and B. Mohammed, “Improving serious game design through a descriptive classification: A comparation of methodologies,” J. Theor. Appl. Inf. Technol., 2016.
P. Lameras, S. Arnab, I. Dunwell, C. Stewart, S. Clarke, and P. Petridis, “Essential features of serious games design in higher education: Linking learning attributes to game mechanics,” Br. J. Educ. Technol., 2017.
J. L. Shih and Y. J. Hsu, “Advancing adventure education using digital motion-sensing games,” Educ. Technol. Soc., 2016.
I. Malegiannaki and Daradoumis, “Analyzing the educational design, use and effect of spatial games for cultural heritage: A literature review,” Comput. Educ., 2017.
G. P. Papanastasiou, A. S. Drigas, and C. Skianis, “Serious games in preschool and primary education: Benefits and impacts on curriculum course syllabus,” Int. J. Emerg. Technol. Learn., 2017.
O. De Troyer, “Challenges in Designing Domain-Specific Modeling Languages for Educational Games,” in Proceedings of the International workshop on Involving End Users and Domain Experts in the Design of Educational Games, 2011.
D. Drummond, D. Monnier, A. Tesnière, and A. Hadchouel, “A systematic review of serious games in asthma education,” Pediatr. Allergy Immunol., 2017.
T. Smith, “Gamified Modules for an Introductory Statistics Course and Their Impact on Attitudes and Learning,” Simul. Gaming, 2017.
T. ERIC and R. FRANKLIN, “Keys to Successful Interactive Storytelling: A Study of the Booming ‘Choose-Your-Own-Adventure’ Video Game Industry,” i-manager’s J. Educ. Technol., 2018.
U. Tokac, E. Novak, and C. G. Thompson, “Effects of game-based learning on students’ mathematics achievement: A meta-analysis,” J. Comput. Assist. Learn., 2019.
M. Qian and K. R. Clark, “Game-based Learning and 21st century skills: A review of recent research,” Comput. Human Behav., 2016.
M. Peterson and M. Peterson, “Computer Games and Learning,” in Computer Games and Language Learning, 2016.
P. Y. Oudeyer, J. Gottlieb, and M. Lopes, “Intrinsic motivation, curiosity, and learning: Theory and applications in educational technologies,” in Progress in Brain Research, 2016.
D. Jana and E. W. Richard, “Conceptualizing group flow: A framework,” Educ. Res. Rev., 2018.
P. H. Mirvis and M. Csikszentmihalyi, “Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience,” Acad. Manag. Rev., 1991.
S. E. Boyer and C. D. Lamoreaux, “Flow Theory as a Construct for Analyzing Learning Environments in a 7th-Grade Science Classroom.,” in Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, March 24-28, 1997) ., 1997.
M. Csikszentmihalyi and J. LeFevre, “Optimal Experience in Work and Leisure,” J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., 1989.
I. Buil, S. Catalán, and E. Martínez, “Exploring students’ flow experiences in business simulation games,” J. Comput. Assist. Learn., vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 183–192, Apr. 2018.
T. Alves, S. Gama, and F. S. Melo, “Flow adaptation in serious games for health,” in 2018 IEEE 6th International Conference on Serious Games and Applications for Health (SeGAH), 2018, pp. 1–8.
C. Ferreira, L. F. Maia, C. de Salles, F. Trinta, and W. Viana, “Modelling and transposition of location-based games,” Entertain. Comput., vol. 30, p. 100295, May 2019.
N. Thillainathan, H. Hoffmann, E. M. Hirdes, and J. M. Leimeister, “Enabling educators to design serious games – A serious game logic and structure modeling language,” in Scaling up learning for sustained impact, vol. 8095, D. Hernández-Leo, T. Ley, R. Klamma, and A. Harrer, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2013, pp. 643–644.
S. Vaupel, D. Strüber, F. Rieger, and G. Taentzer, “Agile bottom-up development of domain-specific IDEs for model-driven development?,” in CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 2015.
G. Kahraman and S. Bilgen, “A framework for qualitative assessment of domain-specific languages,” Softw. Syst. Model., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 1505–1526, Oct. 2015.
A. Barišić, V. Amaral, and M. Goulão, “Usability Driven DSL development with USE-ME,” Computer Languages, Systems & Structures, vol. 51, pp. 118–157, Jul. 2017.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Published by INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development